Table 1

Weighted descriptive statistics for respondents’ characteristics, all and by gender, understanding Society COVID-19 Study and COVID-19 Survey Data

Understanding Society COVID-19 StudyThe COVID-19 Survey DataMinMax
AllMenWomenT test/χ2AllMenWomenT test/χ2
Mean (SD)
/%
Mean (SD)
/%
Mean (SD)
/%
Mean (SD)
/%
Mean (SD)
/%
Mean (SD)
/%
Change in sleep problems0.130.050.2010.02***-33
(0.90)(0.83)(0.93)
Change in sleep duration−0.16−0.22−0.10−4.04***−77
(1.11)(0.97)(1.21)
Age51.6954.851.6411.57***1795
(17.54)(15.89)(16.02)
Cohort NCDS0.50.490.5024.08***01
Cohort BCS700.350.380.330.9001
Cohort Next Steps0.150.130.1735.27***01
Higher education0.300.310.2815.25***0.290.290.291.2701
Vocational training0.120.100.1324.68***0.180.190.183.92*01
A level and equivalent0.220.240.2017.56***0.360.360.370.1401
General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level and below0.360.340.3816.68***0.160.160.170.0901
Change in financial situation−0.06−0.02−0.102.62**1.161.171.160.17−44
(0.86)(0.85)(0.87)(1.27)(1.29)(1.26)
Life course stage
 Young single childless0.170.180.151.160.120.150.102.8101
 Young partnered childless0.030.030.020.080.150.150.154.53*01
 Partnered younger children0.050.050.050.150.040.040.052.5501
 Partnered older children0.140.150.140.030.160.170.142.4801
 Single parent0.120.090.14102.40***0.060.020.10123.53***01
 Older partnered childless0.320.360.29132.51***0.300.310.2921.05***01
 Older single childless0.170.140.2039.77***0.160.150.171.4701
 Employed furloughed0.120.140.110.560.160.160.170.9101
 Self-employed0.070.090.0665.57***0.110.140.0860.21***01
 Employed not furloughed0.410.400.4116.30***0.420.440.410.0201
 Not in labour force0.400.370.420.660.300.260.3422.19***01
Change in employment status
 New job0.050.040.0512.20***0.080.050.1180.61***01
 No change0.880.880.874.53*0.730.770.7032.93***01
 Lose job0.070.080.070.020.190.180.190.2201
Partner’s employment status
 Not in labour force0.180.220.15188.74***0.210.220.2012.57***01
 In labour force0.260.300.2280.45***0.440.450.430.2001
 No Partner0.560.480.63365.01***0.350.320.3712.98***01
 Key worker0.270.240.2992.84***0.260.250.2715.78***01
Time spent on housework
 Lowest quantile0.380.480.28702.52***0.440.550.35230.51***01
 Middle quantile0.360.360.373.200.240.210.2740.29***01
 Highest quantile0.260.160.35676.49***0.310.240.38109.78***01
Race
 White0.940.930.941.010.960.960.965.86*01
 Mixed0.010.010.011.780.010.000.0117.23**01
 Asian0.040.040.030.120.020.020.020.0501
 Black0.010.010.016.30*0.010.010.018.48**01
Physical activity
 No exercise0.320.290.3551.00***0.210.190.2316.09***01
 Some exercise0.400.440.3762.30***0.630.610.642.0601
 Heavy exercise0.280.280.282.070.170.160.175.35*01
 COVID-19 related symptoms0.120.110.121.790.530.490.5519.56***01
 Change in loneliness−0.01−0.040.03−5.67***−22
(0.69)(0.65)(0.72)
Loneliness
 Hardly ever0.650.720.59120.43***01
 Some of the time0.270.230.3277.90***01
 Often0.080.060.1025.40***01
 Change in feeling depressed0.140.060.20−7.63***−33
(0.94)(0.88)(0.99)
 Not at all depressed0.690.740.64105.48**01
 Several days depressed0.230.190.2679.86***01
 Always depressed0.050.040.0610.07**01
 Nearly everyday depressed0.030.020.043.4801
N14 07358808193854736794868
  • *p<0.05, **<0.01, ***<0.001