Table 1

Characteristics of patients, admitted to UAB hospital with COVID-19, between 1 March 2020 and 16 September 2020

Overall sample, n=1024No ACEi/ARB Use, n=659ACEi/ARB use, n=365P value
n, (%)n, (%)n, (%)
Sociodemographics
 Age, mean, SD, years57.0 (18.8)53.3 (19.7)63.7 (14.9)<0.001
 Age, categories, years<0.001
  18–40241 (23.5)211 (32.0)30 (8.2)
  41–64395 (38.6)234 (35.5)161 (44.1)
  65–74202 (19.7)110 (16.7)92 (25.2)
  75 and older186 (18.2)104 (15.8)82 (22.5)
 Race<0.001
  White384 (37.5)254 (38.5)130 (35.6)
  African American532 (52.0)318 (48.3)214 (58.6)
  Hispanic or Latino63 (6.2)57 (8.6)6 (1.6)
  Other20 (2.0)12 (1.8)8 (2.2)
  Declined to report25 (2.4)18 (2.7)7 (1.9)
 Male514 (50.2)319 (48.4)195 (53.4)0.12
 Married414 (40.4)270 (41.0)144 (39.5)0.64
 Smoking status0.09
  Never533 (59.6)344 (62.3)189 (55.1)
  Current98 (10.9)58 (10.5)40 (11.7)
  Former264 (29.5)150 (27.2)114 (33.2)
Comorbidities
 Body mass index (BMI), kg/m20.24
  Underweight, BMI <18.527 (2.7)16 (2.5)11 (3.1)
  Normal Weight, BMI=18.5–24227 (22.5)159 (24.5)68 (18.9)
  Overweight, BMI=25–30268 (26.6)168 (25.8)100 (27.9)
  Obese, BMI=30 and above487 (48.3)307 (47.2)180 (50.1)
 Hypertension493 (48.1)204 (31.0)289 (79.2)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease340 (33.2)149 (22.6)191 (52.3)<0.001
 Diabetes210 (20.5)71 (10.8)139 (38.1)<0.001
 COPD138 (13.5)52 (7.9)86 (23.6)<0.001
 Heart failure323 (31.5)131 (19.9)192 (52.6)<0.001
 Chronic kidney disease325 (31.7)139 (21.1)186 (51.0)<0.001
 HIV positive status75 (7.3)24 (3.6)51 (14.0)<0.001
 Sickle cell disease10 (1.0)7 (1.1)3 (0.8)0.71
 Recipient of solid-organ transplant40 (3.9)16 (2.4)24 (6.6)0.001
In-hospital events
 Admission after 15 July 2020621 (60.6)398 (60.4)223 (61.1)0.83
 Required intensive care unit466 (45.5)287 (43.6)179 (49.0)0.09
 Invasive mechanical ventilation276 (27.0)179 (27.2)97 (26.6)0.84
 In-hospital death137 (13.4)96 (14.6)41 (11.2)0.13
Postdischarge events among the survivors of the index admissionn=877n=563n=324
 All-cause same-hospital readmission (during 1 March 2020–16 September 2020)170 (19.2)97 (16.7)76 (23.5)0.01
 Death from any cause after index admission16 (1.8)9 (1.0)7 (2.2)0.54
 Cumulative mortality (death during 1 March 2020–16 September 2020)153 (14.9)105 (15.9)48 (13.2)0.23
  • ACEi, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; UAB, University of Alabama at Birmingham .