Table 1

The baseline characteristics of the participants who do not smoke and their SHS exposure status at workplace (n=8196)

Total, nSHS exposure
At least once a weekAt least several times a weekAt least once a weekAt least several times a week
Workplace smoke-free policy
 Complete smoking bans627311.
 Partial smoking bans with no longer available smoking spaces40223.912.426.415.2
 Partial smoking bans with still available smoking spaces122722.715.615.810.0
 No smoking bans29443.
Age (years)
Marital status
 Never married261717.912.511.57.5
Educational level
 High school or below180622.817.113.310.0
 University or above456412.
Equivalent household income
 <2.75 million JPY211917.913.311.37.9
 2.75–4.5 million JPY251316.010.610.16.7
 >4.5 million JPY244112.
 Did not know/Did not want to answer112314.411.08.56.5
Regional infection status of COVID-19
Recognition of the adverse health effects of SHS exposure
 Neither yes nor no156017.211.511.97.5
Self-rated health status
Employment pattern
 Permanent employee470217.111.611.27.5
 Company executive40218.212.713.78.5
 Temporary employee73412.
 Part-time employee164112.
Labour type
 Manual labour208620.514.412.07.9
 Non-manual labour611013.
  • Percentages were calculated for each row.

  • HTPs, heated tobacco products; JPY, Japanese yen; SHS, secondhand smoke.