Table 2

Comparison between the blood and urine biomarkers of the CKD cohort (mean ± SD, ratios): n = 92

Combined cohort (n=92)G3* (n=48)G4+5* (n=44)P-value†
Duration of CKD7.2±2.96.6±2.4‡8.4±3.1††0.04§
Duration of diabetes19.6 (9.1)19.3 (8.1)20.3 (9.8)0.23§
History of ischaemic heart disease62:3034:1428:160.04¶
History of hypertension75:1740:835:90.35¶
Systolic BP mm Hg147.7 (19.2)138.2 (15.8)148.6 (20.2)0.06§
Diastolic BP mm Hg74.7 (8.2)71.4 (8.3)73.5 (9.1)0.67§
HbA1c mmol/mol58.2 (16.2)61.3 (12.3)56.2 (15.8)0.40§
Haemoglobin g/L118.2 (13.2)119.3 (10.9)††113.2 (13.2)††0.0001§
eGFR mL/min28.4 (12.6)42.5 (4.65)††18.3 (6.5)††0.0001§
Creatinine umol/L215.7 (29.2)140.1 (51.2)††280.6 (93.3)‡0.0001§
Urine ACR mmol/L, median6.14.78.40.0001**
Albumin (serum) g/L33.2 (4.7)34.0 (4.1)31.4 (4.5)0.34§
Cholesterol mmol/L3.9 (0.89)4.0 (0.83)4.0 (0.98)0.51§
HDL1.3 (0.44)1.3 (0.43)1.3 (0.43)0.52§
NHDL2.6 (0.79)2.5 (0.69)2.7 (0.88)0.66§
LDL1.9 (0.75)1.8 (0.64)2.0 (0.83)0.29§
Triglyceride mmol/L1.6 (0.75)1.6 (0.87)1.6 (0.69)0.27§
  • Categorical values are expressed as percentages or ratios. The mean ± SD and median values are reported for continuous variables. Lower mean scores represent a worse outcome for all tests except for the PHQ-9 and the TMT.

  • Because of the small numbers of patients in the Mild group (n= 10: eGFR 45 to < 60) they were combined with the Moderate group (N=38: 30 to < 45) for ease of viewing.

  • *KIDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, stage of CKD: eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate). *Mild to Moderate 30 to <60: G3; Severe < 30: G4+5,

  • †Means across eGFR stages are equal = null hypothesis.

  • ‡Markers indicate significant differences between controls and CKD patients (by KIDIGO stage) within the same row, where ‘‡’ indicates a difference from another group on a particular row and ‘3’ marked on a row are different from any other group not marked ‘††’.

  • §P-value calculated from ANOVA analysis of variance F-test.

  • ¶P value calculated from χ2 test.

  • **Kruskal Wallis test.

  • ACE, Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination; ACR, albumin-creatinine ratio; ANOVA, analysis of variance; BP, blood pressure; CKD, chronic kidney disease; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NHDL, non-high-density lipoprotein; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; TMT, Trail Making Tests.