Table 1

The list and the definitions of indicators and the outcome variable used in the analysis

Health relatedObesity41Obesity (defined as body mass index ≥30, crude estimate %) prevalence in ≥18-year-old people201617010.59±5.842.1037.30
Hypertension42High blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140) or (diastolic blood pressure ≥90) prevalence in ≥18-year-old people201517023.45±5.3112.6041.00
Alcohol43Annual alcohol consumption per capita (litre) in ≥15-year-old people20181704.96±3.870.0020.05
Diabetes44Diabetes, raised fasting blood glucose (≥7.0 mmol/L) prevalence in ≥18-year-old people20141707.70±3.991.0022.10
Cholesterol45Hypercholesterolaemia, raised total cholesterol (≥6.2 mmol/L) prevalence in ≥25-year-old people200817010.59±5.842.5029.10
Air pollution46Mortality attributable to joint effects of household and ambient air pollution in adults such as acute respiratory infections, cerebrovascular diseases, ischaemic heart diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in adults (ambient and household air pollution attributable death rate (per 100 000 population)201616910.59±5.849.00184.00
ClimaticSunshine47Total sunshine hours (duration of sunlight in a year for countries)20191702519.18±576.31177.003737.00
SocioeconomicVegetable48Annual vegetable consumption for countries (kg/per capita)201715491.93±69.736.28377.17
HDI49Human Development Index. A measure prepared in line with the life span, literacy rate, education and life level for countries around the world (rate between 0.800 and 1000 is very high, rate between 0.350 and 0.549 low)2020169727.75±151.3394.00957.00
Urbanisation50% of population living in urban areas for countries around the world201916960.31±22.1113.25100.00
Age51Elderly people ratio whose age 65 and over for countries around the world20191689.22±6.51.1628.00
Schooling52Average number of completed years of education of a country’s population aged 25 and higher around the world20201698.44±3.121.4013.40
Undernourishment53The proportion of people who are malnourished as a percentage of the population that reflects the share of the population with insufficient caloric intake around the world20191700.11±
Happiness54Happiness Index that shows life satisfaction in different nations, nationally representative samples of respondents are asked to imagine a ladder (rate between 10 representing the best possible life and a 0 representing the worst possible life)20191395.55±1.092.527.84
GINI55Gini Inequality Index measures whether the distribution of national income in a country is equal or not. The coefficient takes values between 0 and 1, and higher values correspond to greater inequality.201917038.86±8.0425.0063.00
PoliticalDemocracy56Index that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries. It takes values between 0 and 10. 10 represents the perfect democracy and 0 represents the dictator regime.20201555.52±2.181.439.81
Transparency57Transparency measured by the Corruption Perception Index for each country, score between 100 represents very clean and 0 represents highly corrupt202016643.92±18.7412.0088.00
Target variablesTotalDeath-COV199 58Cumulative total deaths per million people by 31 December 20202020170294.91±375.790.001673.00
TotalCase-COV199 59Cumulative total cases per million people by 31 December 2020202017016874.29±20 449.214.0011 568.00
TBDeath60Deaths related to tuberculosis per 100.000 population yearly2020170101.79±135.300.40611.00