Table 3

Differences in outcome measures based on participant characteristics (n=122)

Frequency (%)GAD-7PHQ-9ISI-7
Mean (SD)P valueMean (SD)P valueMean (SD)P value
GenderMale98 (80.3)8.6 (5.2)0.609.5 (5.8)0.9711.2 (6.4)0.96
Female24 (19.7)8.0 (5.5)9.5 (5.1)11.3 (6.8)
EducationDiploma20 (16.4)9.9 (5.3)0.2411.5 (5.3)0.2112.2 (6.1)0.40
Bachelor76 (62.3)8.5 (5.1)9.0 (5.3)10.6 (6.4)
Postgraduate26 (21.3)7.3 (5.3)9.5 (6.7)12.2 (6.8)
Marital statusMarried82 (67.2)8.2 (6.2)0.739.2 (6.4)0.6911.3 (6.3)0.82
Single40 (32.8)8.6 (4.7)9.6 (5.4)11.0 (6.9)
Have childrenYes48 (39.3)8.4 (4.8)0.899.8 (5.6)0.5011.4 (6.5)0.66
No74 (60.7)8.4 (5.9)9.1 (5.8)10.9 (6.4)
ProfessionParamedic21 (17.2)9.8 (5.5)0.3811.1 (5.7)0.5414.0 (6.0)0.14
Physicians54 (44.2)8.7 (5.7)9.0 (6.2)10.9 (6.7)
Nurse40 (32.8)7.7 (4.5)9.4 (5.3)10.1 (6.2)
Others7 (5.7)6.9 (3.2)8.9 (2.5)10.9 (5.4)
Fear of infectionYes115 (94.3)8.6 (5.3)0.269.5 (5.8)0.811.1 (6.5)0.69
No7 (5.7)6.3 (3.6)9.0 (4.5)12.1 (6.7)
  • Others: refers to allied healthcare.

  • P value based on independent Student’s t-test or one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test.

  • GAD-7, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; ISI-7, 7-item Insomnia Severity Index; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire; SD, Standard Deviation.