Table 1

Population and household characteristics of neighbourhoods in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area and correlations with neighbourhood under-five mortality in 2010

Neighbourhood population and household characteristicsMedian (inter-quartile range)Correlation coefficient
(Spearman’s rho)
AllPeriurbanUrbanAllPeriurbanUrban
Child mortality rate (deaths per 1000 live births)80 (68–92)69 (57–79)90 (79–99)n/an/an/a
Population2972 (767–12798)730 (439–1380)11754 (6254–20873)n/an/an/a
Population aged under 5 years384 (107–1430)105 (64–195)1267 (703–2486)n/an/an/a
Median household consumption (GHS)5599 (4249–6894)4485 (3616–5432)6690 (5633–7473)0.44*−0.18*0.35*
Population density (per km2)1858 (614–6366)682 (156–1405)5610 (1914–14513)0.44*0.040.09
Women’s literacy†90.2% (83.2%–93.3%)88.0% (68.9%–93.0%)91.4% (88.2%–93.4%)0.03−0.41*0.12
Women’s schooling: at least primary†90.2% (83.2%–93.3%)88.0% (68.9%–93.0%)91.4% (88.2%–93.4%)0.03−0.41*0.12
Women’s schooling: at least middle†78.7% (67.9%–83.4%)74.9% (43.3%–81.9%)80.4% (76.0%–84.2%)0.09−0.41*0.14*
Women’s schooling: at least secondary†36.6% (24.5%–44.3%)30.7% (6.4%–39.8%)40.6% (33.3%–47.7%)0.18*−0.38*0.21*
Women’s schooling: post-secondary†10.5% (4.9%–15.4%)7.4% (1.2%–12.5%)12.6% (8.3%–17.6%)0.18*−0.30*0.17*
Employment‡67.4% (64.7%–70.5%)68.2% (64.5%–72.9%)67.1% (64.9%–68.9%)−0.010.31*−0.18*
Occupation: primary sector‡2.0% (1.5%–3.8%)3.4% (1.6%–21.4%)1.8% (1.4%–2.5%)−0.040.44*−0.03
Occupation: non-primary sector‡64.0% (60.3%–66.6%)61.7% (37.5%–65.9%)64.9% (62.6%–66.7%)0.04−0.25*−0.14*
Non-agricultural household§94.4% (88.8%–96.4%)89.1% (47.2%–95.3%)95.3% (93.3%–96.9%)0.10*−0.40*0.03
Improved dwelling type§88.1% (79.4%–93.4%)88.5% (78.1%–94.7%)88.1% (80.0%–92.3%)−0.13*−0.28*0.02
Improved drinking water source§95.1% (85.4%–97.9%)92.8% (78.6%–99.0%)95.9% (89.7%–97.6%)−0.11*−0.39*−0.02
Improved water source§89.5% (71.8%–96.7%)80.5% (50.6%–94.6%)93.7% (81.7%–97.1%)0.12*−0.18*0.07
Improved toilet facilities§70.2% (48.3%–84.6%)74.2% (51.2%–89.7%)66.5% (47.3%–80.6%)−0.18*−0.29*0.00
Improved solid waste disposal§77.4% (54.2%–90.8%)64.4% (36.6%–86.3%)85.7% (68.6%–93.4%)0.34*0.050.26*
Improved liquid waste disposal§26.3% (10.2%–40.0%)12.7% (1.9%–26.5%)32.9% (23.8%–48.3%)0.31*−0.25*0.27*
Improved cooking fuel use§45.0% (27.4%–55.2%)35.9% (4.8%–50.2%)49.2% (39.4%–57.9%)0.12*−0.37*0.13*
Improved lighting source§83.9% (71.9%–92.0%)79.8% (55.2%–87.6%)88.4% (77.6%–93.3%)0.05−0.48*0.10
Improved floor material§90.9% (84.6%–94.1%)92.1% (84.4%–96.2%)90.3% (84.9%–93.0%)−0.14*−0.18*−0.05
Improved roof material§95.6% (91.2%–97.2%)95.2% (79.8%–98.3%)95.6% (93.6%–96.7%)−0.25*−0.43*−0.23*
Improved wall material§87.2% (76.0%–92.4%)85.9% (59.2%–93.8%)87.6% (83.0%–91.7%)−0.22*−0.50*−0.18*
  • Median levels across all, periurban and urban neighbourhoods presented with IQR in parentheses. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients show the correlation between neighbourhood under-five mortality and neighbourhood characteristics that indicate the socioeconomic and living conditions. Online supplemental appendix 4 shows the distribution of under-five mortality across quintiles of analysed indicators.

  • *Significant at the 5% level.

  • †Measured as the proportion of women of childbearing age (15–49 years) in the neighbourhood.

  • ‡Measured as the proportion of population of working age (15–64 years) in the neighbourhood.

  • §Measured as the proportion of population in the neighbourhood.

  • GHS, Ghanaian Cedi.