Table 3

Themes and subthemes emerging from interviews of parental caregivers of children with T1DM

Persistent psychological stress
  1. Catastrophic emotional experience

  2. Emotional distress based on negative emotions

  3. Altered sense of self-efficacy

  4. Perceived increased responsibility for parenting

Family function changes
  1. Changes in patterns of family life

  2. Changes in parental roles and functions

Challenges in daily management
  1. Technical difficulties managing blood glucose

  2. Difficulties in emotional regulation and managing parent–child conflict

  3. Transition from parental management to self-management as the child ages

Excessive financial burden
  1. Burden of disease treatment

  2. Changes in economic sources

Lack of social support system
  1. Limited social activities

  2. Insufficient other support systems

  • T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus.