Table 1

Characteristics of patients with complex multimorbidity by types of primary care facilities

CharacteristicTotal (N=492)Types of primary care facilities
Clinic (n=312)Hospital (n=180)
Gender, n (%)
Male220 (44.7)152 (48.7)68 (37.8)
Female258 (52.4)152 (48.7)106 (58.9)
Data missing14 (2.8)8 (2.6)6 (3.3)
Age (year), n (%)
20–292 (0.4)1 (0.3)1 (0.6)
30–395 (1.0)4 (1.3)1 (0.5)
40–498 (1.6)6 (1.9)2 (1.1)
50–5936 (7.3)24 (7.7)12 (6.7)
60–69122 (24.8)82 (26.3)40 (22.2)
70–79208 (42.3)140 (44.9)68 (37.8)
80 or more107 (21.7)54 (17.3)53 (29.4)
Data missing4 (0.8)1 (0.3)3 (1.7)
Education, n (%)
Less than high school114 (23.2)73 (23.4)41 (22.8)
High school205 (41.7)130 (41.7)75 (41.7)
Junior college74 (15.0)47 (15.1)27 (15.0)
More than or equal to college88 (17.9)56 (17.9)32 (17.8)
Data missing11 (2.2)6 (1.9)5 (2.8)
Annual household income (million JPY), n (%)
<3.00 (=US$27 000)255 (51.8)153 (49.0)102 (56.7)
3.00–4.99131 (26.6)93 (29.8)38 (21.1)
5.00–6.9949 (10.0)33 (10.6)16 (8.9)
7.00–9.9916 (3.3)12 (3.8)4 (2.2)
≥10.0011 (2.2)7 (2.2)4 (2.2)
Data missing30 (6.1)14 (4.5)16 (8.9)
Hospitalisation in past 6 months, n (%)
Yes75 (15.2)37 (11.9)38 (21.1)
No412 (83.7)272 (87.2)140 (77.8)
Data missing5 (1.0)3 (1.0)2 (1.1)
Experience of visiting specialist, n (%)
Yes358 (72.8)228 (73.1)130 (72.2)
No94 (19.1)61 (19.6)33 (18.3)
Data missing40 (8.1)23 (7.4)17 (9.4)
Number of chronic conditions, median (IQR)3.0 (3.0–4.0)3.0 (3.0–4.0)3.0 (3.0–4.0)
Municipality population size, n (%)
≥50 000465 (94.5)294 (94.2)171 (95.0)
<50 00027 (5.5)18 (5.8)9 (5.0)
Number of regular medications, median (IQR)5.0 (3.0–7.0)4.0 (3.0–6.0)6.0 (3.0–8.0)
JPCAT-SF, mean (SD)
First contact53.5 (27.4)47.2 (27.6)64.2 (23.6)
Longitudinality75.8 (19.4)76.4 (18.2)74.7 (21.4)
Coordination67.4 (28.5)69.7 (27.9)63.2 (29.2)
Comprehensiveness (services available)62.0 (26.1)62.2 (25.4)61.6 (27.4)
Comprehensiveness (services provided)36.5 (31.5)39.0 (30.3)31.7 (33.4)
Community orientation67.6 (19.6)69.0 (19.6)65.2 (19.4)
Self-rated health status, n (%)
Excellent5 (1.0)3 (1.0)2 (1.1)
Very good55 (11.2)42 (13.5)13 (7.2)
Good248 (50.4)167 (53.5)81 (45.0)
Fair161 (32.7)89 (28.5)72 (40.0)
Poor18 (3.7)7 (2.2)11 (6.1)
Data missing5 (1.0)4 (1.3)1 (0.6)
  • JPCAT-SF, Japanese version of Primary Care Assessment Tool Short Form.