Table 4

Association between the diagnosis type on the initial opioid prescription and subsequent chronic prescription opioid use among Rhode Island residents, 1 April 2019 to 31 March 2020†, *

Diagnosis typeSubsequent chronic prescription opioid useAdjusted OR (95% CI)‡
N=53 176
n (row %)
n (row %)
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue14 368 (92.55)1157 (7.45)5.94 (4.68–7.56)
Diseases of the nervous system7776 (92.83)601 (7.17)6.26 (4.90–8.01)
Diseases of the digestive system7518 (99.55)34 (0.45)0.43 (0.29–0.65)
Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified6975 (97.78)158 (2.22)1.96 (1.48–2.60)
Factors influencing health status and contact with health services3770 (98.36)55 (1.67)1.34 (0.96–1.89)
Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes3235 (98.33)55 (1.67)1.38 (0.97–1.96)
Neoplasms1812 (92.45)148 (7.55)5.60 (4.20–7.47)
Diseases of the circulatory system463 (96.66)16 (3.34)2.05 (1.18–3.57)
Other§7259 (99.00)73 (1.00)Ref
  • Significant adjusted odds ratios where p<0.05 are bolded

  • *Initial opioid prescriptions defined as either the patient’s first opioid prescription or an opioid prescription that started at least 60 days after the patient’s previous opioid prescription ended. For patients with more than one initial opioid prescription during this period, we randomly selected one for inclusion in this analysis.

  • †Chronic prescription opioid use defined as ≥60 days’ supply of opioids dispensed in the 90 days following the fill date of an individual’s initial opioid prescription (including the days’ supply of the initial prescription).

  • ‡Adjusted for potential confounders selected a priori: age (continuous) and sex.

  • §Other includes all initial opioid prescriptions for diagnosis types with 15 or less chronic users, including: certain conditions originating in the perinatal period, certain infectious and parasitic diseases, congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities, diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism, diseases of the eye and adnexa, external causes of morbidity and mortality, pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium, mental and behavioural disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the genitourinary system.