Table 3

Associations of mortality with patterns of medication use among hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days according to beta blocker use

Discontinued beta blocker* (n=651)Continuous beta blocker* (n=3361)
OR†95%OR†95%
Confidence limitsConfidence limits
ACE-I
Before only0.900.58 to 1.401.531.25 to 1.89
Before and after0.460.27 to 0.790.640.51 to 0.80
ARB
Before only2.221.29 to 3.832.061.57 to 2.69
Before and after0.740.38 to 1.440.680.52 to 0.87
Metformin
Before only1.230.72 to 2.111.371.08 to 1.73
Before and after0.510.22 to 1.160.330.24 to 0.47
  • *Models are stratified by whether or not patients discontinued or continued their beta blocker medication in the 60 days following positive COVID-19 test result.

  • †ORs and 95% confidence limits are estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, sex, overweight and smoking status at index date, and for the presence of the following pre-existing conditions within 2 years of positive COVID-19 test: diabetes (type 2), CVD, HTN, CAHD, CHF, mention of heart disease, mention of heart failure, COPD, bronchitis, acute respiratory failure, asthma, mention of chronic lung disease and emphysema, and for the CCI.

  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CAHD, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HTN, hypertension; VA, Veterans Affairs.