Table 1

(A) ACE-Is and ARBs in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days. (B) Metformin and beta blockers in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days. (C) Famotidine and remdesivir in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days

Medication/outcome*Medication use by timing of COVID-19 positive test result
Not usedTaken before only†Taken after only‡Taken before and after§
(A) ACE-Is and ARBs in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days
ACE-INMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶
Age589667.1 (15.9)136570.6 (11.7)35170.7 (13.2)192069.2 (11.2)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis580329.3 (7.2)136429.7 (7.5)34229.8 (7.3)191930.5 (7.1)<0.0001
CCI58962.7 (2.7)13654.4 (3.0)3511.9 (2.5)19203.4 (2.5)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender54239213209732693186197<0.0001
Black20743554340802368336<0.0001
Hispanic5249103826716790.3509
Overweight425712993410187100.0005
Smoker at diagnosis5731215912199255140.0500
Past smoker2416506785310048928510.2398
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††2219388886513438126266<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††2618449246812536113659<0.0001
Pre-index HTN††35746112779419355180794<0.0001
Pre-index CAHD††14672558843812368436<0.0001
Pre-index CHF††811144283225739020<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††19533377257952786945<0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††9941748736361045724<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††13912443432451349726<0.0001
Pre-index bronchitis††5731015812226211110.0091
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††3806180131031498<0.0001
Pre-index asthma††367691717511660.6345
Pre-index chronic lung disease††21823766048722180842<0.0001
Pre-index emphysema ††1603463215030.0377
Death12842241130341028315<0.0001
ARBNMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶
Age773067.8 (151)54571.6 (10.9)21870.6 (11.5)103969 (11.0)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis763329.34 (7.2)54530.0 (7.4)21230.0 (6.4)103831.5 (7.3)<0.0001
CCI77302.8 (2.7)5454.8 (3.0)2182.3 (2.5)10393.9 (2.7)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender7216935309719891986950.0003
Black26643523343343440839<0.0001
Hispanic68593261998580.1087
Overweight584‡‡851913612712<0.0001
Smoker at diagnosis83213631226178590.0008
Past smoker325950264517247527530.1946
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††331743364671004672269<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††36394740073874067765<0.0001
Pre-index HTN††519767521961496898495<0.0001
Pre-index CAHD††20572727450522443742<0.0001
Pre-index CHF††11281520938271229028<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††27183533962743455854<0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††13641823443361734033<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††17992320638462131630<0.0001
Pre-index bronchitis††7269691318815115<0.0001
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††5297891694929<0.0001
Pre-index asthma††43465210146919<0.0001
Pre-index chronic lung disease††28613729554683149848<0.0001
Pre-index emphysema ††193328531343<0.0001
Death16072121239281316516<0.0001
(B) Metformin and beta blockers in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days
MetforminNMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶¶
Age697068.4 (15.5)120869.7 (10.5)15165.0 (14.1)120366.7 (10.8)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis687728.9 (7.1)120731.2 (7.3)14232.0 (7.3)120232.1 (7.1)<0.0001
CCI69702.8 (2.9)12084.1 (2.6)1511.9 (2.1)12033.3 (2.4)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender64829311599613690115396<0.0001
Black241335455385436458380.0400
Hispanic58481201014910390.3546
Overweight467713611231514912<0.0001
Smoker at diagnosis756131251198116100.0065
Past smoker291751600525350552480.1901
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††2064301176978660117798<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††34094972760473162052<0.0001
Pre-index HTN††4641671075899160104487<0.0001
Pre-index CAHD††19772844337271837331<0.0001
Pre-index CHF††11941726622151017915<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††26223856447362446739<0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††14432129825181221518<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††175625312262416275230.0177
Pre-index bronchitis††6711012610117156130.0028
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††52881119647460.0128
Pre-index asthma††41467961498470.1896
Pre-index chronic lung disease††268839525444027469390.0001
Pre-index emphysema ††2053292112320.0668
Death15362236630751039<0.0001
Beta blockersNMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶
Age424764.3 (16.6)68370.3 (13.0)104170.9 (12.7)356171.6 (10.8)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis417429.6 (7.2)68327.9 (7.0)101229.6 (7.5)355930 (7.2)<0.0001
CCI42472.0 (2.3)6834.2 (2.9)10412.1 (2.2)35614.3 (2.9)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender3866916459498494343596<0.0001
Black14793527039351341280360.0590
Hispanic477114976162347<0.0001
Overweight337835587831690.0108
Smoker at diagnosis4261280128812412120.9895
Past smoker1556463405236750185955<0.0001
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††1499353615342140222262<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††1211284927235034275077<0.0001
Pre-index HTN††2379565988860858326692<0.0001
Pre-Index CAHD††447103024416616190554<0.0001
Pre-index CHF††187419428666120734<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††672163955824123238167<0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††249623333969140639<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††724172223317817124335<0.0001
Pre-index bronchitis††3789741165644713<0.0001
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††1463811243444913<0.0001
Pre-index asthma††257655848523160.0265
Pre-index chronic lung disease††1302313415028728179250<0.0001
Pre-index emphysema ††8423042221223<0.0001
Death69516202303163079922<0.0001
(C) Famotidine and remdesivir in hospitalised VA patients with COVID-19 followed for 60 days
FamotidineNMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶
Age752168.0 (14.7)45968.1 (13.3)112968.5 (13.6)42370.0 (12.4)0.0376
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis743029.6 (7.3)45928.7 (6.8)111630.0 (7.4)42329.6 (7.0)0.0145
CCI75212.9 (2.8)4594.7 (3.3)11292.6 (2.6)4234.2 (2.8)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender70329443996106094399940.2851
Black2692361683636432156370.1064
Hispanic60584410136123690.0001
Overweight60882551101032‡‡80.0358
Smoker at diagnosis7911268161081239100.0663
Past smoker3197502345448352208530.1951
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††350847258564844325360<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††367349330725234627765<0.0001
Pre-index HTN††530271390857917036887<0.0001
Pre-index CAHD††215729200443042715938<0.0001
Pre-index CHF††12571714732157149322<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††282838262573933520349< 0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††149720166361961711527<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††178924180392442215436<0.0001
Pre-index bronchitis††715107216109106816<0.0001
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††501798217574511<0.0001
Pre-index asthma††44964095554711<0.0001
Pre-index chronic lung disease††283238268583893423355<0.0001
Pre-index emphysema ††19632152621540.0420
Death1436199922379349823<0.0001
Remdesivir‡‡NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)NMean (SD)P value¶
Age680038.1 (14.8)273268.3 (13.5)0.6342
BMI (kg/m2)† at diagnosis671029.1 (7.1)271831.1 (7.5)<0.0001
CCI68003.2 (2.9)27322.7 (2.5)<0.0001
N(%)N(%)N(%)N(%)P value**
Male gender6349932581940.0449
Black26193876128<0.0001
Hispanic512830911<0.0001
Overweight480729511<0.0001
Smoker at diagnosis80214204‡‡8<0.0001
Past smoker2833491289530.0012
Pre-index type 2 diabetes††311946138451<0.0001
Pre-index CVD††3506521297470.0003
Pre-index HTN††4818712033740.0005
Pre-index CAHD††206630754280.0071
Pre-index CHF††12681938614<0.0001
Pre-index heart disease††27334095635<0.0001
Pre-index heart failure††15052246917<0.0001
Pre-index COPD††167825689250.5789
Pre-index bronchitis††67410290110.3032
Pre-index acute respiratory failure††518820170.6633
Pre-index asthma††395619670.0124
Pre-index chronic lung disease††2639391083400.4513
Pre-index emphysema ††1752830.2063
Death13622065024<0.0001
  • *Outcome is death from any cause occurring within 60 days of positive COVID-19 test result.

  • †Taken before only includes ever use within the period of 2 years before the positive COVID-19 test result.

  • ‡Taken after only includes any record of use within the period of 60 days after the positive COVID-19 test result.

  • §Taken before and after includes any use in the period of 2 years prior and during 60 days after a positive COVID-19 test result.

  • ¶P value resulting from analysis of variance (ANOVA) F-test for continuous variables.

  • **P value resulting from χ2 test of differences in the distributions across categories.

  • ††Pre-index conditions are coded if ever present in 2 years preceding positive COVID-19 test result.

  • ‡‡Remdesivir was given only after COVID-19 diagnosis; therefore, data are presented only for categories: ‘Not used’ and ‘Taken after only’.

  • ACE-Is, ACE inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers; BMI, body mass index; CAHD, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; HTN, hypertension; VA, Veterans Affairs.