Table 1

Characteristics of the study cohort assessed in the ED, grouped by healthcare setting that could conduct the main ED intervention

CharacteristicED only, no. (%)Urgent care centre, no. (%)General practice, no. (%)*
Overall, 2,267,585710 340 (31.3)†1 557 245 (68.7)†233 896 (10.3)†
Gender
 Male335 526 (47.2)701 921 (45.1)118 624 (50.7)
 Female374 814 (52.8)855 324 (54.9)115 272 (49.3)
Age, years
 18-3968 456 (9.6)222 126 (14.3)69 550 (29.7)
 40-64187 776 (26.4)407 518 (26.2)70 409 (30.1)
 65-105452 013 (63.6)927 601 (59.6)93 937 (40.2)
Access to primary health care
 Family physician628 410 (88.5)1 380 558 (88.7)190 855 (81.6)
 Other3070 (0.4)10 446 (0.7)2875 (1.2)
 None45 255 (6.4)102 792 (6.6)24 804 (10.6)
 Unreported33 605 (4.7)63 449 (4.1)15 362 (6.6)
Year of visit
 2014142 988 (20.1)360 483 (23.1)60 677 (25.9)
 2015157 724 (22.2)361 686 (23.2)54 942 (23.5)
 2016172 327 (24.3)365 899 (23.5)53 767 (23.0)
 2017187 015 (26.3)368 925 (23.7)52 401 (22.4)
 201850 286 (7.1)100 252 (6.4)12 109 (5.2)
CTAS, acuity
 1-Resuscitation55 787 (7.9)37 559 (2.4)6067 (2.6)
 2-Emergent310 363 (43.7)611 786 (39.3)85 448 (36.5)
 3Urgent323 284 (45.5)789 010 (50.7)116 014 (49.6)
 4-Less Urgent20 108 (2.8)113 891 (7.3)25 020 (10.7)
 5-Non-urgent798 (0.1)4999 (0.3)1347 (0.6)
Time of triage, hour
 Day (0700 –1459)319 312 (45.0)652 013 (41.9)81 448 (34.8)
 Evening (1500-2259)264 375 (37.2)593 972 (38.1)95 383 (40.8)
 Overnight (2300-0659)126 653 (17.8)311 260 (20.0)57 065 (24.4)
Diagnostic Category, ICD-10‡
 A,B-Certain infectious diseases17 995 (2.5)50 360 (3.2)2904 (1.2)
 C-Neoplasms8429 (1.2)10 781 (0.7)653 (0.3)
 D-Disorders of blood involving immune system4250 (0.6)11 692 (0.8)927 (0.4)
 E-Endocrine, nutrition, and metabolic disorders13 805 (1.9)34 167 (2.2)3 249 (1.4)
 F-Mental and behavioural disorders35 363 (5.0)86 911 (5.6)57 728 (24.7)
 G-Diseases of nervous system43 001 (6.1)9912 (0.6)2658 (1.1)
 H-Diseases of the eye, adnexa, ear and mastoid process9132 (1.3)2329 (0.1)698 (0.3)
 I-Diseases of the circulatory system80 452 (11.3)130 083 (8.4)7585 (3.2)
 J-Diseases of the respiratory system34 828 (4.9)214 284 (13.8)13 735 (5.9)
 K-Diseases of the digestive system44 821 (6.3)76 472 (4.9)5074 (2.2)
 L-Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue2188 (0.3)14 220 (0.9)998 (0.4)
 M-Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue16 385 (2.3)75 194 (4.8)2515 (1.1)
 N-Diseases of the genitourinary system36 992 (5.2)69 707 (4.5)5558 (2.4)
 O-Pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium195 (0.0)2171 (0.1)202 (0.1)
 P-Certain conditions origination in the Perinatal Period2 (0.0)1 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Q-Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities119 (0.0)115 (0.0)19 (0.0)
 R-Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings198 556 (28.0)376 542 (24.2)39 005 (16.7)
 S,T-Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes152 591 (21.5)370 165 (23.8)87 161 (37.3)
 U-External coucals of morbidity and mortality0 (0.0)2 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Z-Factors influencing health status and contact with health services11 236 (1.6)22 137 (1.4)3227 (1.4)
 Visit outcome admitted to reporting facility, to special44 651 (6.3)49 851 (3.2)3950 (1.7)
Care unit or operating room
 Admitted to reporting facility, to another unit283 378 (39.9)541 719 (34.8)51 593 (22.1)
 Discharged home291 956 (41.1)773 555 (49.7)142 624 (61.0)
 Discharged to place of residence (Institution)62 062 (8.7)143 350 (9.2)24 128 (10.3)
 Dead on or after arrival in ED540 (0.1)441 (0.0)32 (0.0)
 Other27 753 (3.9)36 669 (2.4)11 569 (4.9)
Days to Left ED
 0416 687 (58.7)1 012 242 (65.0)162 894 (69.6)
 1261 869 (36.9)487 555 (31.3)66 194 (28.3)
 225 725 (3.6)46 228 (3.0)3743 (1.6)
 34833 (0.7)9013 (0.6)799 (0.3)
 4820 (0.1)1628 (0.1)175 (0.1)
 >4231 (0.0)286 (0.0)91 (0.0)
  • *General practice is a subset of urgent care; visits categorised as general practice were also categorised as urgent care.

  • †Percentage of the total patients in cohort.

  • ‡Represents primary diagnosis of ED visit.

  • CTAS, Canadian Triage and Acuity Score; ED, emergency department; ICD-10th, International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision.