Table 4

Associations for maternal exposure to cough medications containing DM alone, GG alone and DM +GG during early pregnancy with non-NTDs, NBDPS, 1997–2011

Study groupDM alone*GG alone†DM +GGExposure not classified
No. of non-exposed (referent)No. (%) of exposed‡cOR (95% CI)aOR§ (95% CI)No. (%) of exposed‡cOR (95% CI)aOR§ (95% CI)No. (%) of exposed‡cOR (95% CI)aOR§ (95% CI)No.
Controls for non-NTDs10 259204 (1.9)NANA168 (1.6)NANA40 (0.4)NANA720
Cases for non-NTDs14 463323 (2.2)NANA246 (1.7)NANA78 (0.5)NANA987
Central nervous system
 Hydrocephalus29010 (3.3)1.7 (0.9 to 3.3)1.9 (1.0 to 3.7)2 (0.7)NCNC3 (1.0)NCNC13
Ear
 Anotia/microtia4076 (1.5)0.7 (0.3 to 1.7)1.0 (0.4 to 2.2)6 (1.5)0.9 (0.4 to 2.0)0.9 (0.4 to 2.3)2 (0.5)NCNC35
Craniofacial
 Cleft lip with/without cleft palate¶234854 (2.2)1.2 (0.9 to 1.6)1.1 (0.8 to 1.6)50 (2.1)1.3 (0.9 to 1.8)1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)19 (0.8)2.1 (1.2 to 3.6)1.6 (0.9 to 3.0)152
 Cleft palate¶110729 (2.6)1.3 (0.9 to 2.0)1.4 (0.9 to 2.1)18 (1.6)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)4 (0.4)NCNC84
Gastrointestinal
 Anorectal atresia/stenosis3805 (1.3)0.7 (0.3 to 1.6)0.7 (0.3 to 1.7)11 (2.8)1.8 (1.0 to 3.3)1.6 (0.8 to 3.1)1 (0.3)NCNC30
 Small intestinal atresia/stenosis3368 (2.3)1.2 (0.6 to 2.4)1.2 (0.6 to 2.5)12 (3.4)2.2 (1.2 to 4.0)2.1 (1.1 to 4.0)2 (0.6)NCNC20
Genitourinary
 Hypospadias**††192237 (1.9)1.1 (0.7 to 1.5)1.0 (0.6 to 1.5)26 (1.3)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)0.8 (0.5 to 1.3)6 (0.3)1.0 (0.4 to 2.4)0.7 (0.3 to 2.1)136
Heart
 AS2815 (1.7)0.9 (0.4 to 2.2)1.1 (0.4 to 2.7)6 (2.1)1.3 (0.6 to 3.0)1.6 (0.7 to 3.7)0NCNC24
 AVSD1487 (4.5)2.4 (1.1 to 5.1)2.9 (1.3 to 6.5)2 (1.3)NCNC0NCNC8
 CoA4688 (1.7)0.9 (0.4 to 1.8)1.0 (0.5 to 2.0)6 (1.3)0.8 (0.3 to 1.8)0.5 (0.1 to 1.4)0NCNC30
 d-TGA49010 (2.0)1.0 (0.5 to 1.9)0.8 (0.4 to 1.7)7 (1.4)0.9 (0.4 to 1.9)0.9 (0.4 to 2.0)2 (0.4)NCNC39
 HLHS4969 (1.8)0.9 (0.5 to 1.8)0.7 (0.3 to 1.6)9 (1.8)1.1 (0.6 to 2.2)1.2 (0.6 to 2.3)3 (0.6)NCNC30
 PVS‡‡87623 (2.6)1.3 (0.9 to 2.1)1.1 (0.7 to 1.8)9 (1.0)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)0.6 (0.3 to 1.3)6 (0.7)1.9 (0.8 to 4.6)1.5 (0.5 to 4.0)55
 TAPVR2245 (2.2)1.1 (0.5 to 2.8)1.4 (0.6 to 3.6)3 (1.3)NCNC0NCNC8
 ToF79717 (2.1)1.1 (0.7 to 1.8)1.1 (0.7 to 1.9)14 (1.7)1.1 (0.6 to 1.9)1.0 (0.5 to 1.8)5 (0.6)1.6 (0.6 to 4.1)1.5 (0.6 to 3.8)53
Musculoskeletal
 Craniosynostosis125625 (2.0)1.0 (0.7 to 1.5)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)14 (1.1)0.7 (0.4 to 1.2)0.7 (0.4 to 1.3)5 (0.4)1.0 (0.4 to 2.6)1.2 (0.5 to 3.1)83
 Diaphragmatic hernia56910 (1.7)0.9 (0.5 to 1.7)1.0 (0.5 to 1.8)8 (1.4)0.9 (0.4 to 1.8)0.8 (0.4 to 1.8)3 (0.5)NCNC44
 Gastroschisis114525 (2.1)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)22 (1.9)1.2 (0.7 to 1.8)1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)13 (1.1)2.9 (1.6 to 5.5)3.2 (1.5 to 6.9)80
 Longitudinal limb deficiency2096 (2.8)1.4 (0.6 to 3.3)1.3 (0.5 to 3.1)5 (2.3)1.5 (0.6 to 3.6)1.3 (0.5 to 3.7)1 (0.5)NCNC15
 Omphalocele2136 (2.7)1.4 (0.6 to 3.2)1.1 (0.4 to 2.8)8 (3.6)2.3 (1.1 to 4.7)2.1 (0.9 to 4.5)0NCNC13
 Transverse limb deficiency50118 (3.5)1.8 (1.1 to 2.9)1.8 (1.1 to 3.0)8 (1.6)1.0 (0.5 to 2.0)0.8 (0.4 to 1.8)3 (0.6)NCNC35
  • *DM alone refers to maternal exposure to DM without GG.

  • †GG alone refers to maternal exposure to GG without DM.

  • ‡Exposure during the 1 month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy.

  • §Adjusted for child sex, first-degree family history of same defect and study site; maternal race/ethnicity, age and educational level at delivery, prepregnancy body mass index and hypertension diagnosed before or during pregnancy; and maternal cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, fever and use of a supplement containing folic acid during the 1 month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy.

  • ¶Controls from Utah delivered in 2003 (118) were excluded because Utah did not contribute data on children with cleft lip with/without cleft palate or cleft palate during that year.

  • **Second or third degree.

  • ††Female controls (5217) were excluded.

  • ‡‡Controls from California delivered prior to 2002 (345) were excluded because children with PVS in California were not routinely ascertained according to NBDPS criteria.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; AS, aortic stenosis; AVSD, atrioventricular septal defect; CoA, coarctation of the aorta; cOR, crude OR; DM, dextromethorphan; d-TGA, dextro-rotated transposition of the great arteries; GG, guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate); HLHS, hypoplastic left heart syndrome; NA, not applicable; NBDPS, National Birth Defects Prevention Study; NC, not calculated; NTDs, neural tube defects; OR, odds ratio; PVS, pulmonary valve stenosis; TAPVR, total anomalous pulmonary venous return; ToF, tetralogy of Fallot.