Table 4

A multilevel logistic regression analysis of factors associated with women’s awareness of obstetric fistula among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia (n=15 683)

VariablesModel II
AOR (95% CI)
Model III
AOR (95% CI)
Model IV
AOR (95% CI)
Age
 15–1911
 20–251.20 (1.04 to 1.38)*1.17 (1.02 to 1.35)*
 26–301.57 (1.33 to 1.85)†1.50 (1.27 to 1.76)†
 >301.87 (1.59 to 2.20)†1.76 (1.50 to 2.07)†
Religion
 Christians11
 Muslim0.77 (0.67 to 0.87)†0.83 (0.73 to 0.94)†
Education
 No formal education11
 Primary1.79 (1.61 to 1.99)†1.70 (1.53 to 1.89)†
 Secondary3.77 (3.25 to 4.38)†3.43 (2.95 to 3.99)†
 Higher6.50 (5.16 to 8.18)†5.88 (4.66 to 7.42)†
History of birth
 No11
 Yes1.11 (0.96 to 1.29)1.14 (0.98 to 1.33)
Sex history
 No11
 Yes1.15 (0.98 to 1.35)1.16 (0.99 to 1.35)
Ever terminated pregnancy
 No11
 Yes1.31 (1.13 to 1.52)†1.31 (1.13 to 1.51)†
Media exposure
 Less than a week/never11
 At least once a week1.46 (1.31 to 1.62)†1.33 (1.2 to 1.49)†
Internet use
 Never11
 Ever2.43 (1.99 to 2.96)†2.25 (1.84 to 2.75)†
Currently working
 No
 Yes1.12 (1.03 to 1.23)*1.10 (0.9 to 1.19)
Household Wealth Index
 Poor11
 Medium1.27 (1.11 to 1.45)†1.17 (1.02 to 1.34)*
 Rich1.92 (1.69 to 2.17)†1.50 (1.31 to 1.72)†
Residence
 Rural11
 Urban1.62 (1.23 to 2.15)†1.11 (0.84 to 1.48)
Contextual region
 Pastorals11
 Agrarians1.28 (1.07 to 1.53)*1.09 (0.91 to 1.31)
 Metropolitans1.29 (0.99 to 1.70)0.97 (0.74 to 1.28)
Community-level poverty
 High11
 low poverty1.17 (0.94 to 1.46)0.93 (0.74 to 1.16)
Community female education
 Low11
 High1.57 (1.27 to 1.93)†1.09 (0.88 to 1.34)
Community media exposure
 Low11
 High1.49 (1.21 to 1.84)†1.30 (1.05 to 1.61)*
Community ANC rate
 Low11
 High1.81 (1.49 to 2.20)†1.66 (1.37 to 2.02)†
Health facility distance problem
 High11
 Low1.55 (1.28 to 1.88)†1.49 (1.23 to 1.81)†
  • *Statistically significant at p<0.05.

  • †Statistically significant at p<0.01, model II=a model contained only individual-level factors, model III=a model contained only community-level factors, model IV=a model contained both the individual and community level factors.

  • ANC, antenatal care; AOR, adjusted OR.