Table 3

Bristol Tongue Assessment Tool (BTAT)

Tongue tip appearanceHeart shapedSlight cleft/notchedRounded
Attachment of frenulum to lower gum ridgeAttached at top of gum ridgeAttached to inner aspect of gumAttached to floor of mouth
Lift of tongue with mouth wide (crying)Minimal tongue liftEdges only to mid-mouthFull tongue lift to mid-mouth
Protrusion of tongueTip stays behind gumTip over gumTip can ascend over lower lip