Table 3

Quality of life outcomes

1 month3 monthsMD
(95% CI)
P value1 month12 monthsMD
(95% CI)
P value
EQ-5D-5L(n=20)(n=20)(n=17)(n=17)
Mobility1.8±0.951.65±0.950.15 (−0.23 to 0.53)0.4191.94±1.091.29±0.590.65 (0.05 to 1.25)0.037*
Self-care1.2±0.701.15±0.670.05 (−0.05 to 0.15)0.3301.47±1.011.12±0.330.24 (−0.16 to 0.87)0.164
Usual activities1.55±0.891.45±0.830.1 (−0.20 to 0.40)0.4941.59±0.711.47±0.720.12 (-0.05 to 0.29)0.164
Pain/discomfort1.55±0.691.55±0.600 (−0.34 to 0.34)0.9991.71±1.351.47±0.510.24 (−0.05 to 0.52)0.104
Anxiety/depression1.6±0.881.65±0.99−0.05 (−0.37 to 0.27)0.7481.53±0.621.18±0.390.35 (−0.01 to 0.71)0.055
VAS (0–100)84.44±14.4484.78±12.24−0.33 (−3.80 to 3.13)0.84185.67±14.7489.33±8.21−3.67 (−9.44 to 2.11)0.195
PedsQL(n=23)(n=23)(n=8)(n=8)
Physical functioning74.59±23.6777.58±19.32−2.99 (−14.53 to 8.55)0.59778.91±23.4987.11±14.70−8.20 (−26.41 to 10.00)0.322
Emotional functioning56.96±18.6352.83±18.764.13 (−6.23 to 14.49)0.41755.63±28.0956.88±29.39−1.25 (−21.58 to 19.08)0.889
Social functioning50.22±22.9451.09±19.07−0.87 (−10.62 to 8.88)0.85556.25±25.8863.13±25.20−6.88 (−20.64 to 6.89)0.276
School functioning50.94±32.0857.46±34.13−6.52 (−18.78 to 5.74)0.28265±32.7451.67±24.9313.33 (−5.35 to 32.01)0.135
HUI3(n=26)(n=26)(n=25)(n=25)
Vision1.20±0.771.06±0.260.13 (−0.15 to 0.42)0.3341.36±1.041.12±0.440.18 (−0.12 to 0.60)0.185
Hearing4.20±1.773.92±1.670.29 (−0.51 to 1.09)0.4603.52±2.062.56±1.200.96 (0.30 to 1.61)0.006*
Speech1.35±0.891.35±0.980 (−0.40 to 0.40)1.0001.44±0.961±0.000.44 (0.04 to 0.84)0.031*
Ambulation/mobility3.17±1.474.33±1.030.60 (−2.71 to 0.37)0.1103.00±0.003.00±0.0001.00
Dexterity1.00±0.001.00±0.0001.001.00±0.001.00±0.0001.00
Emotion1.5±0.521.33±0.490.17 (−0.08 to 0.41)0.1661.17±0.391.08±0.290.08 (−0.24 to 0.41)0.586
Cognition2.24±1.412.05±1.280.19 (−0.55 to 0.93)0.5992.15±1.382.11±1.200.05 (-0.82 to 0.92)0.901
Pain2.12±1.231.88±1.370.24 (−0.16 to 0.63)0.2331.73±1.051.97±1.30−0.23 (−0.62 to 0.16)0.229
  • *Statistically significance.

  • †paired t-test.

  • EQ-5D-5L, the EuroQol Research Foundation 5-level EQ-5D version; HUI3, Health Utility Index Mark 3; MD, mean difference; PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.