Table 1

Frequency of microbiology tests requested by primary care surgeries in Oxfordshire between 2008 and 2018

Test groupTestsTest resultsPatients
N%Positive*Mixed growthEquivocalN%†
All tests1 596 752100393 905100
Culture±microscopy
 Urine673 61242.226.725.63.05247 35662.8
 Genital108 8616.8227.869 05517.5
 Surface swab68 2884.2841.148 85412.4
 Faecal68 2404.279.7455 03214.0
 Antenatal urine57 4233.606.5725.41.7937 9239.63
 Dermatophyte24 0931.5126.821 0295.34
 Pus49330.3135.03.2643321.10
 Respiratory tract32110.2093.616710.42
Tests targeting specific organismsPositive
 Hepatitis B116 3667.29Surface antigen:
0.59 (470/79811) antenatal,
3.15 (956/30359) non-antenatal
80 65820.5
 HIV99 4366.230.5667 46717.1
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)84 6865.300.0658 00214.7
Chlamydia76 7114.802.3555 68214.1
 Rubella (antibody)76 5564.7996.551 70513.1
Helicobacter pylori51 1373.2020.045 45611.5
Hepatitis C30 9101.94Antibody: 5.52 (1633/29561)
RNA 51.3 (779/1519)
25 4686.47
Cryptosporidium/Giardia22 4221.402.4519 0764.84
Clostridioides difficile12 9750.815.7010 4892.66
 Gastrointestinal bacterial panel‡10 0150.6315.692022.34
Epstein-Barr virus68770.43EBNA IgG: 70.5 (4649/6592)
VCA IgG: 47.6 (1033/2172)
VCA IgM: 26.6 (568/2136)
65701.67
  • *Positivity in cultures reflects the detection of one or more organisms in the specimen provided, and should not necessarily be interpreted as an indication of pathogenicity.

  • †Percentages may not add to total as patients could have more than a single test of a different type during the study period.

  • ‡An enteric pathogen panel that tests for Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp and shiga toxin genes (for the detection of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli such as O157).

  • EBNA, Epstein-Barr virus Nuclear Antigen; VCA, viral capsid antigen.