Table 1

Demography, psychological distress, substance use and multimorbidity

n (%)Mean no of disorders (SD) *Patients with multimorbidity
n (%)†
All patients2725 (100)2.24 (1.54)1558 (57.2)
Sex (n=2707)
Female1407 (52.0)2.16 (1.47)718 (55.2)
Male1300 (48.0)2.31 (1.60)827 (58.8)
Age years (n=2702)
18–34568 (21.0)1.52 (0.88)199 (35.0)
35–49445 (16.5)1.82 (1.26)200 (44.9)
50–64618 (22.9)2.19 (1.56)355 (57.4)
65–79742 (27.5)2.72 (1.73)516 (69.5)
≥80329 (12.2)3.03 (1.57)271 (82.4)
Occupational status (n=2613)
Active1242 (47.5)1.67 (1.07)502 (40.4)
Retired990 (37.9)2.85 (1.71)734 (74.1)
Non-active381 (14.6)2.45 (1.62)251 (65.9)
Psychological distress (SCL-5) (n=2513)551 (21.9)2.41 (1.65)345 (62.6)
Substance use
 Alcohol use patterns by AUDIT-4 (n=2594)
  Abstinence (score 0)619 (23.9)2.61 (1.58)431 (69.6)
  Low-risk drinking (scores 1–3)867 (33.4)2.20 (1.52)487 (56.2)
  Alcohol use in excess of low-risk guidelines (scores 4–6)726 (28.0)1.95 (1.41)347 (47.8)
  Hazardous drinking (scores 7–8)183 (7.1)1.93 (1.35)89 (48.6)
  Risky alcohol use and possible alcohol dependence (scores ≥9)199 (7.7)2.46 (1.65)128 (64.3)
 Psychoactive medicinal drugs (n=2477)787 (31.8)2.56 (1.61)541 (68.7)
  1 psychoactive medicinal drug461 (18.6)2.45 (1.60)302 (65.5)
  ≥2 psychoactive medicinal drugs326 (13.2)2.73 (1.61)239 (73.3)
 Illicit drugs (n=2477)158 (6.4)2.23 (1.47)98 (62.0)
No of disorders (n=2725)
 11167 (42.8)
 2657 (24.1)
 3430 (15.8)
 4240 (8.8)
 5–10231 (8.5)
  • *Differences between means within each variable differed significantly p<0·005 (t-test for independent samples for sex, illicit drug use and psychological distress); ANOVA for age groups, occupational status, psychoactive medicinal drug use and alcohol use patterns).

  • †Differences between categories within each variable except for sex differed significantly p<0.005 (chi-squared (χ²) test for 2×n tables).

  • ANOVA, one-way analysis of variance; AUDIT-4, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test 4; SCL-5, Symptom Checklist 5.