Table 2

Prevalence of individual substance use and combined substance use (alcohol use includes any level of drinking, from low-risk drinking to risky drinking) among patients with and without multimorbidity (single diseased)

N (%)Single-diseased patients
n (%)*
Patients with multimorbidity n (%)*
All patients (n=2359, 100%)1018 (43.2)1341 (56.8)
Not taken any drug (n=308, 13.1%)114 (37.0)194 (63.0)
Combined substance use
 Combined illicit drugs and alcohol (n=43, 1.8%)23 (53.5)20 (46.5)
 Combined psychoactive medicines and alcohol (n=432, 18.3%)154 (35.6)278 (64.4)
 Combined psychoactive medicines and illicit drugs (n=24, 1.0%)7 (29.2)17 (70.8)
 Combined all three substances (n=68, 2.9%)26 (38.2)42 (61.8)
Individual substance use
 Only psychoactive medicines (n=222, 9.4%)45 (20.3)177 (79.7)
 Only alcohol (n=1253, 53.1%)648 (51.7)605 (48.3)
 Only illicit drugs (n=9, 0.4%)1 (11.1)8 (88.9)
  • *Differences between the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and combination of substances among single- diseased and those with multimorbidity differed significantly with a p<0.001 for all of the substances and combinations of substances (chi-squared (χ²) test for 2×n tables).