Table 2

Frequency of microbiology tests by sex in Oxfordshire primary care practices between 2008 and 2018

Test groupMaleFemale
N tests%N patients%*N tests%N patients%*
All tests343 020100136 5381001 253 732100257 367100
Culture±microscopy
 Urine171 65650.075 46055.3501 95640.0171 89666.8
 Genital6480.196000.44108 2138.6368 45526.6
 Surface swab28 9668.4420 51115.039 3223.1428 34311.0
 Faecal30 5948.9225 01418.337 6463.0030 01811.7
 Antenatal urine57 41537 915
 Dermatophyte11 2783.2998627.2212 8151.0211 1674.34
 Pus25660.7522341.6423670.1920980.82
 Respiratory tract13370.397510.5518740.159200.36
Tests targeting specific pathogens
 Hepatitis B17 9525.2315 03311.098 4147.8565 62525.5
 HIV94182.7577815.7090 0187.1859 68623.2
Treponema pallidum (syphilis)18650.5417391.2782 8216.6156 26321.9
Chlamydia46551.3643423.1872 0565.7551 34020.0
 Rubella3530.103420.2576 2036.0851 36320.0
Helicobacter pylori21 4636.2619 35414.229 6742.3726 10210.1
 Hepatitis C16 4284.7913 4899.8814 4821.1611 9794.65
Cryptosporidium/Giardia11 5713.3797517.1410 8510.8793253.62
Clostridioides difficile50331.4741173.0279420.6363722.48
 Gastrointestinal bacterial panel†44861.3141463.0455290.4450561.96
 Epstein-Barr virus27430.8026391.9341340.3339311.53
  • *Note these percentages may not add to the total as patients could have more than a single test of a different type during the study period.

  • †An enteric pathogen panel that tests for Shigella spp, Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp and shiga toxin genes (for the detection of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli such as O157).