Table 2

Examples of possible interventions

Example(s)Intervention classificationMain targetPotential benefitsPotential challenges/disadvantages
Edutainment video about contraceptionTargeted client communication (transmit targeted health information to client based on health status or demographics)
Goal is to increase awareness, not to instruct on specific details of contraceptive methods
Clients (potential or existing users of contraception, factory workers)
  • Potential for increased reach

  • Potential to influence attitudes and behaviour about contraception use

Does not provide detailed information about pros and cons of contraceptive method
Provider-to-client communicationTargeted alerts/reminders on mobile phonesExisting clients
  • Increase in follow-up visits and continuity of care

  • Increase in adherence to instructions

  • Privacy (if phones are shared or anyway accessible to other people)

  • Frequent changes of numbers and loss of phones make it difficult to have unique phone ID for unique clients

Provider-to-provider communicationIncrease sharing of best practices in informal private online groups (eg, WhatsApp and Facebook group chats)Providers, especially private providers who do not have regular opportunities for professional updates and training
  • Provide informal opportunities for sharing best practices and asking for advice

  • Leverage social and informal ties to create strong ‘communities of practice’26

  • Informal groups can be difficult to sustain without participants’ buy-in; need a few motivated individuals

  • Peer-to-peer information exchanges are not necessarily medically sound, so they could help spread misinformation

Instructional video about contraception methodsOn-demand information services to clients
  • Existing clients

  • Potential users already considering a specific method

  • Providers who need reminding/training about how specific methods work

  • Video more attractive format compared with written text, and already a common source of information among targeted audiences

  • Can reach clients who are not comfortable or able to go to pharmacies/clinics

  • Comments on the videos can offer insights into frequent questions, and potentially serve as a source of referral for clinics

  • Unclear how likely videos are in influencing attitudes and behaviour

  • Relies on being found in the midst of other commercial videos fighting for attention

  • Relies on users having the connectivity to watch the video

  • Requires resources to produce, post and keep updated

  • Requires resources to potentially monitor and answer comments and questions

Video about abortionEducation about abortion
  • Clinic/pharmacy clients

  • Women at risk of or with unintended pregnancy

  • Can reach audiences that are uncomfortable with text and/or with visiting clinics to ask for information

  • Can offer a medically sound perspective, among propaganda and medically dubious videos currently available online

  • Difficult topic to engage with through an accurate, but accessible and engaging video

  • Requires significant effort in managing the online presence of such videos (moderation, reliability, findability among competing anti-abortion videos, etc)

Instructional video about medical abortionEducation about medical abortionWomen with unintended pregnancy
  • More accessible alternative to written text for those with low-literacy levels

  • Can be easier to access in private than written leaflets

  • Needs to be found online, against existing competing videos that might be less accurate but are ranked higher in search results

  • Privacy issues, as it remains in search history