Table 1

Prevalence of male gender, age categories and 29 conditions/diseases contributing to the COVID-19 Vulnerability Score (CVS); for each listed contributor, the outcome incidence among the exposed people, the OR (and 90% CI) and the corresponding weight of the contribution to CVS are reported

Number (%)Number of outcome eventsIncidence every 10 000OR*90% CI*Weight†
Male gender3 797 636 (49.6)684918.03.072.95 to 3.1911
Age ≤453 111 426 (40.6)2710.91.00Reference0
Age 46–592 305 062 (30.1)14356.25.955.36 to 6.6218
Age 60–691 222 310 (16.0)250620.515.6214.09 to 17.3227
Age 70–791 016 704 (13.3)494848.727.6424.96 to 30.6133
HIV infection31 300 (0.4)15449.21.521.33 to 1.744
Other infectious and parasitic diseases42 422 (0.6)443104.41.371.26 to 1.493
Malignancies177 024 (2.3)107360.61.421.35 to 1.504
Diabetes without insulin therapy278 785 (3.6)141950.91.601.53 to 1.685
Insulin therapy101 996 (1.3)97395.42.352.21 to 2.499
Obesity16 571 (0.2)10362.21.341.13 to 1.583
Disorders of fluid, electrolyte and acid–base balance8576 (0.1)135157.41.291.11 to 1.493
Gout164 428 (2.2)151892.31.571.50 to 1.665
Coagulation defects3603 (0.1)3699.91.411.07 to 1.853
Anaemias613 430 (8.0)222836.31.511.45 to 1.584
Dementia/Alzheimer12 671 (0.2)145114.41.261.09 to 1.462
Psychosis138 034 (1.8)68449.61.941.80 to 2.087
Depression588 688 (7.7)172929.41.351.29 to 1.423
Parkinson’s disease and parkinsonism40 885 (0.5)27467.01.211.09 to 1.342
Epilepsy and recurrent seizures122 171 (1.6)51041.71.371.26 to 1.483
Other diseases of the nervous system and sense organs35 495 (0.5)25371.31.261.13 to 1.402
Ischaemic heart disease/angina91 539 (1.2)84592.31.181.11 to 1.262
Heart failure21 840 (0.3)428196.01.301.18 to 1.433
Vascular diseases14 936 (0.2)217145.31.171.04 to 1.322
Cerebrovascular diseases35 205 (0.5)33394.61.121.02 to 1.231
Hypertension796 044 (10.4)313639.41.201.15 to 1.252
Coronary and peripheral vascular disease658 737 (8.6)266840.51.751.68 to 1.826
Oral anticoagulant agents144 713 (1.9)122184.41.391.32 to 1.473
COPD/asthma20 034 (0.3)268133.81.151.03 to 1.281
Liver cirrhosis and other liver chronic diseases29 484 (0.4)17760.01.311.16 to 1.493
Chronic kidney disease17 109 (0.2)371216.81.321.20 to 1.463
Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues106 747 (1.4)35333.11.101.00 to 1.201
Chronic pain191 442 (2.5)100752.61.281.21 to 1.362
Corticosteroids935 246 (12.2)258827.71.621.55 to 1.685
Individuals without any of the 29 conditions above listed4 600 012 (60.1)13502.9
  • The analysis was based on the cohort of 7 655 502 beneficiaries of the Lombardy Region Health Service for at least 2 years, who on 21 February 2020 were alive, aged between 18 and 79 years and did not reside in a nursing home. During the first epidemic wave (until June 2020), this cohort experienced 9160 severe (intensive care unit admitted and mechanically ventilated via intubation) and/or fatal outcomes. The average incidence rate during the first wave was therefore 12.0 cases per 10 000 people at risk.

  • *OR, and 90% CI, estimated by multivariable logistic regression. ORs measured the strength of the association between the presence/absence of each of the listed contributors and the outcome odds.

  • †Weights were obtained from the coefficients of the logistic model; the latter were converted into scores by multiplying them by 10 and rounding them to the nearest whole number.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.