Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Source, yearCountryStudy periodStudy designImplantSurgeon grade terminology (primary exposure)Follow-up (years)No of cases (trainee)Implant brand (stem/cup if hip)Sex (% female)Mean age (SD or range)Indication (% OA)Supervision reportedSurvival analysisRevision rates reportedROBINS-I overall risk of bias*
Hasegawa,28 2015Japan2006–2010PCTHRTrainee vs instructor5483 (259)Multiple61.3 (SD 11.6)NoYesNoSerious
Jain,27 2018UK2005–2012RCTHRTrainee vs consultant5, 101082 (348)Corail/multiple61.369.2 (21–94)91.0NoYes (Add.)YesModerate
Müller,26 2013Switzerland2005–2006RCTHRJunior vs senior5130 (43)Quadra-H /Versafit-CC52.064 (SD 12.36)86.0NoYesYesSerious
Palan,12 2009UK1999–2002RCTHRTrainee vs consultant trainer51501 (528)Exeter/multiple68.4 (21–94)NoNoYesModerate
Reidy,13 2016UK2003–2004RCTHRTrainee vs consultant10870 (286)Multiple60.569.5 (37–94)94.8YesYes (no CIs)YesModerate
Faulkner,15 2017UK2003–2004RCTKRTrainee vs consultant5, 10686 (236)Multiple69.9 (30–94)93.1NoYes (Add.)YesModerate
Hernigou,29 2009France1990–1995RCTKRYoung (<30) vs senior10, 15250 (150)Ceraver Hermes69.773 (46–88)NoYesNoSerious
Bottomley,16 2016UK1998–2008RCUKRTrainee vs consultant101084 (673)Oxford51.466.5 (SD 9.6)100YesYesYesModerate
Alvand,30 2021UK2009–2015RCUKRTrainee vs consultant5273 (118)Oxford49.567.8 (SD 10.1)98.2YesNoYesModerate
  • *See online supplemental table 1 for full risk of bias assessment.

  • Add., additional data provided by author; OA, osteoarthritis; PC, prospective cohort; RC, retrospective cohort; ROBINS-I, Risk of Bias in Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions; THR, total hip replacement; TKR, total knee replacement; UKR, unicompartmental knee replacement.