Table 3

Challenge contests, hackathons and online collaboration systems

MethodDefinitionImportant differences
ContestsOpen prize challenges where a call is issued to the public and then contributions are solicited and evaluated
  • In-person or online

  • Medium term (months)

  • Prizes awarded

HackathonsEvents where a diverse group of individuals are brought together to advance a common goal
  • Typically in-person

  • Short-term (weeks)

  • Prizes awarded

Online collaboration systemsOnline platforms that allow individuals to exchange and share contributions and ideas
  • Online

  • Permanent

  • Prizes not typically awarded