Table 1

General characteristics of the study population at baseline (2006–2008) (n=7700)

VariablesN(%)HRQOLQOL
MeanSDP valueMeanSDP value
Total770010055.821.6<0.000160.818.7<0.0001
Change in healthy lifestyle score (20062008)0.6236<0.0001
High–High2193(28.5)57.121.663.418.7
Low–High905(11.8)53.920.460.418.5
High–Low912(11.8)53.722.258.719.1
Low–Low3690(47.9)56.121.659.818.5
Gender0.82190.0427
Male3376(43.8)5921.162.318.2
Female4324(56.2)53.321.659.619
Age<0.0001<0.0001
45–542094(27.2)63.319.263.817.6
55–642229(28.9)58.220.463.318
≥653377(43.9)49.621.957.319.2
Education level<0.0001<0.0001
Lower than middle school3485(45.3)48.821.65619
Middle school graduate1305(16.9)57.82062.118
High school graduate2134(27.7)62.419.36516.9
University graduate776(10.1)66.319.168.417.5
Income level<0.0001<0.0001
Low2837(36.8)4822.254.319.7
Middle low1782(23.1)572061.117.8
Middle high1691(22)60.719.564.616.4
High1390(18.1)64.519.268.915.5
Marital status0.115<0.0001
Married6072(78.9)5820.962.917.6
Unmarried1628(21.1)47.922.352.920.5
Economic activity<0.00010.5342
Active3306(42.9)62.319.163.917.1
Inactive4394(57.1)50.922.158.519.5
Region0.0592<0.0001
Urban5825(75.6)56.921.56119
Rural1875(24.4)52.621.46017.8
Participation in social activities<0.0001<0.0001
Yes5999(77.9)58.920.263.417.5
No1701(22.1)4522.951.519.7
Depression<0.0001<0.0001
Yes4169(54.1)48.421.455.819.1
No3531(45.9)64.618.366.716.3
Cognitive function<0.00010.0017
Normal5822(75.6)6019.763.217.7
Abnormal1878(24.4)42.921.953.219.6
ADL difficulty<0.0001<0.0001
Yes269(3.5)27.621.642.521.9
No7431(96.5)56.920.961.418.2
IADL difficulty0.0031<0.0001
Yes852(11.1)41.823.650.920.7
No6848(88.9)57.620.76218.1
Self-rated health<0.0001<0.0001
Good3618(47)66.317.166.415.8
Normal2399(31.2)53.81859.618.1
Bad1683(21.9)36.220.350.420.4
Number of chronic diseases<0.00010.002
03506(45.5)62.619.163.617.2
12328(30.2)54.52161.118.6
≥21866(24.2)44.721.755.120.3
  • ADL, activities of daily living; HRQOL, health-related quality of life; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; QOL, quality of life.