Table 1

Characteristics and experiences of participants stratified by authorship

VariablesAll (n=1100)First author (n=587)Co-author only (n=299)No author (n=214)P values
Age category
 Aged <40 years, n (%)376 (34)219 (37)63 (21)94 (44)<0.0001*
 Aged 40–50 years, n (%)353 (32)218 (37)93 (31)42 (20)
 Aged 50 years or older, n (%)371 (34)150 (26)143 (48)78 (36)
Specialty
 Internal medicine, n (%)518 (47)269 (46)145 (48)104 (49)0.02*
 Surgery, n (%)308 (28)176 (30)89 (30)43 (20)
 Others, n (%)274 (25)142 (24)65 (22)67 (31)
Institution
 University hospital or institute, n (%)384 (35)269 (46)78 (26)37 (17)<0.0001*
 Public hospital, n (%)324 (29)147 (25)107 (36)70 (33)
 Private hospital, n (%)392 (36)171 (29)114 (38)107 (50)
Experience of learning of research integrity, n (%)1021 (93)559 (95)272 (91)190 (89)0.003*
 Recalling learning of research integrity, n (%)540/1021 (53)328/559 (59)135/272 (50)77/190 (41)<0.0001*
 Awareness of research integrity after learning, n (%)555/1021 (54)339/559 (61)148/272 (54)68/190 (36)<0.0001*
Reasons to learn research integrity†
 Required by the institution, n (%)582/1021 (57)344/559 (62)146/272 (54)92/190 (48)0.003*
 Recommended by academic association for certification, n (%)272/1021 (27)157/559 (28)70/272 (26)45/190 (24)0.45
 Required to obtain approval of IRB, n (%)308/1021 (30)180/559 (32)68/272 (25)60/190 (32)0.09
 Consider necessity of learning of research integrity, n (%)161/1021 (16)74/559 (13)48/272 (18)39/190 (21)0.04*
 Interested in learning of research integrity, n (%)99/1021 (9.7)31/559 (5.5)30/272 (11)38/190 (20)<0.0001*
Knowledge of each of the following regulations related to research integrity in Japan†
 Ethical Guidelines for Medical and Health Research Involving Human Subjects, n (%)475 (43)306 (52)115 (38)54 (25)<0.0001*
 Clinical Trials Act, n (%)410 (37)268 (46)99 (33)43 (20)<0.0001*
 Policies issued by the ministries, n (%)334 (30)223 (38)77 (26)34 (16)<0.0001*
Experienced†
 Copying and paste for writing paper, n (%)124 (11)72 (12)28 (9.4)24 (11)0.42
 Become gifted authorship, n (%)125 (11)57 (9.7)45 (15)23 (11)0.07
 Presenting or writing research paper without approval from IRB, n (%)64 (5.8)42 (7.2)14 (4.7)8 (3.7)0.11
  • *Statistically significant.

  • †Multiple answers were allowed.

  • IRB, Institutional review board.