Table 1

Distribution of demographic variables and clinical parameters in enrolled patients and comparison of survivors and non-survivors in the cohort

VariablesOverall (n=451)
N (%)
Survivor (n=386)
N (%)
Non-survivor (n=65)
N (%)
P value
Age (mean±SD)51±12.450±12.456±11.3<0.001*
Age≤40104 (23.1)97 (25.1)7 (10.8)0.004
41–59225 (49.9)194 (50.3)31 (47.7)
≥60122 (27.1)95 (24.6)27 (41.5)
Gender: male346 (76.7)294 (76.2)52 (80.0)0.499
Blood groupA104 (23.1)91 (23.6)13 (20.0)0.518
B164 (36.4)140 (36.3)24 (36.9)
AB25 (5.5)19 (4.9)6 (9.2)
O158 (35.0)136 (35.2)22 (33.8)
History of smoking37 (8.2)32 (8.3)5 (7.7)0.866
Comorbidities and chronic illness
 Diabetes196 (43.5)164 (42.5)32 (49.2)0.310
 Hypertension169 (37.5)139 (36.0)30 (46.2)0.118
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease15 (3.3)10 (2.6)5 (7.7)0.050
 Obesity ≥3031 (6.9)25 (6.5)6 (9.2)0.426
 Chronic kidney disease17 (3.8)11 (2.8)6 (9.2)0.024
 Coronary artery disease31 (6.9)23 (6.0)8 (12.3)0.106
 Cerebrovascular disease4 (0.9)3 (0.8)1 (1.5)0.465
Symptoms at admission
 Shortness of breath413 (91.6)351 (90.9)62 (95.4)0.232
 Fever158 (35.0)128 (33.2)30 (46.2)0.042
 Cough309 (68.5)259 (67.1)50 (76.9)0.115
 Fatigue354 (78.7)301 (78.2)53 (81.5)0.541
Severity of illness score
 SOFA score at admission*2.40±1.062.30±0.933.05±1.49<0.001
Treatment
 Vasopressor18 (4.0)1 (0.3)17 (26.6)<0.001
 Non-invasive ventilation (NIV)446 (98.9)383 (99.2)63 (96.9)0.101
 Invasive ventilation38 (8.4)4 (1.04)34 (52.31)<0.001
 Interval between symptom onset and admission†4 (3, 7)4 (3, 7)4 (3, 6)0.996
 Duration of respiratory support, days†6 (4, 10)6 (4, 9.5)6 (3, 10)0.689
 Duration of invasive ventilation, days†1 (1,3)12 (2, 14)1 (1, 3)0.020
 Duration of hospital stay, days†14 (10, 18)14 (11, 19)8 (5, 14)<0.001
  • P values are highlighted in bold for statistically significant factors.

  • *Mean±SD—independent t-test was used.

  • †Median (IQR) days in days—Mann-Whitney U test was used.

  • SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.