Table 1

Characteristics of 558 postdelivery women and 365 currently pregnant women

CharacteristicsN (%) or mean (SD)
Postdelivery womenCurrently pregnant women
Never HTP smokersEver HTP smokersNever HTP smokersEver HTP smokers
Overalln=493n=65n=319n=46
Maternal and neonatal risk
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy32 (6.5)9 (13.8)*NANA
 Low birth weight <2500 g44 (8.9)12 (18.5)*NANA
 Preterm birth <37 weeks19 (3.9)4 (6.2)NANA
 Imminent preterm birth82 (16.6)18 (27.7)*NANA
Age32.4 (4.1)30.9 (4.2)**31.9 (4.3)31.3 (4.7)
Ever combustible cigarette smoking82 (16.6)55 (84.6)***54 (16.9)41 (89.1)***
Educational attainment ≥13 years410 (83.2)37 (56.9)***278 (87.1)31 (67.4)**
Managerial workers19 (3.9)5 (7.7)16 (5.0)2 (4.3)
Comorbidity of hypertension or diabetes35 (7.1)4 (6.2)4 (1.3)4 (8.7)**
Household incomen=436n=58n=263n=41
 <¥200 million13 (3.0)3 (5.2)6 (2.3)1 (2.4)
 ¥200 to <¥600 million200 (45.9)30 (51.7)115 (43.7)19 (46.3)
 ≥¥600 million223 (51.1)25 (43.1)142 (54.0)21 (51.2)
Never combustible cigarette smokersn=411n=10n=265n=5
Maternal and neonatal risk
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy26 (6.3)1 (10.0)NANA
 Low birth weight <2500 g34 (8.3)3 (30.0)*NANA
 Preterm birth <37 weeks17 (4.1)0 (0)NANA
 Imminent preterm birth69 (16.8)3 (30.0)NANA
Age32.2 (4.0)33.3 (2.3)31.7 (4.3)30.2 (1.8)
Educational attainment ≥13 years348 (84.7)7 (70)235 (88.7)4 (80.0)
Managerial workers16 (3.9)1 (10)14 (5.3)0 (0)
Comorbidity of hypertension or diabetes24 (5.8)0 (0)4 (1.5)0 (0)
Household incomen=361n=9n=219n=5
 <¥200 million10 (2.8)0 (0)5 (2.3)0 (0)
 ¥200 to <¥600 million160 (44.3)4 (44.4)97 (44.3)3 (60.0)
 ≥¥600 million191 (52.9)5 (55.6)117 (53.4)2 (40.0)
 Ever combustible cigarette smokersn=82n=55n=54n=41
Maternal and neonatal risk
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy6 (7.3)8 (14.5)NANA
 Low birth weight <2500 g10 (12.2)9 (16.4)NANA
 Preterm birth <37 weeks2 (2.4)4 (7.3)NANA
 Imminent preterm birth13 (15.9)15 (27.3)NANA
Age33.5 (4.3)30.5 (4.3)***32.9 (4.2)31.4 (5.0)
Educational attainment ≥13 years62 (75.6)30 (54.5)**43 (79.6)27 (65.9)
Managerial workers3 (3.7)4 (7.3)2 (3.7)2 (4.9)
Comorbidity of hypertension or diabetes11 (13.4)4 (7.3)0 (0)4 (9.8)*
Household incomen=75n=49n=44n=36
 <¥200 million3 (4.0)3 (6.1)1 (2.3)1 (2.8)
 ¥200 to <¥600 million40 (53.3)26 (53.1)18 (40.9)16 (44.4)
 ≥¥600 million32 (42.7)20 (40.8)25 (56.8)19 (52.8)
  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 for χ2 test or t-test.

  • HTP, heated tobacco product; NA, not applicable.