Table 3

Scores for measures from questionnaire at baseline and follow-up

Questionnaire scoreMalawi
baseline
n=50
Malawi
follow-up
n=47
P value*Mozambique
baseline
n=48
Mozambique
follow-up
n=48
P value*Overall
baseline
n=98
Overall
follow-up
n=95
P value*
Health and Well-being related outcomes
(PHQ-9)†
Depressive symptoms severity
 None-minimal (0–4), n (%)27 (54.0)33 (70.2)0.13424 (50.0)29 (60.4)0.29751 (52.0)62 (65.3)0.078
 Mild (5–9), n (%)16 (32.0)11 (23.4)0.31719 (39.6)15 (31.3)0.41435 (35.7)26 (27.4)0.206
 Moderate (10–14), n (%)5 (10.0)3 (6.4)1.0005 (10.4)3 (6.3)0.48010 (10.2)6 (6.3)0.527
 Moderately severe (15–19), n (%)2 (4.0)0 (0.0)0.1570 (0.0)1 (2.1)0.3172 (2.0)1 (1.1)0.564
 Severe (20–27), n (%)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Proportion with score>10, n (%)6 (12.0)1 (2.1)0.0592 (4.2)3 (6.3)0.5648 (8.2)4 (4.2)0.206
 Proportion with score≥10, n (%)7 (14.0)3 (6.0)0.1035 (10.4)4 (8.3)0.70612 (12.2)7 (7.1)0.166
Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID)‡
 Raw score,
 mean (SD)
11.2 (11.9)6.0 (8.3)0.01221.1 (11.7)11.5 (8.6)<0.00116.1 (12.7)8.8 (8.8)<0.001
 Proportion with raw score≥40, n (%)2 (4.0)1 (2.0)0.5645 (10.4)0 (0.0)0.0257 (7.1)1 (1.0)0.034
 Percentage score,
 mean (SD)
14.0 (14.9)7.6 (10.3)0.01226.4 (14.6)14.3 (10.7)<0.00120.1 (15.9)11.0 (11.0)<0.001
WHO (Five) Well-Being Index§
 Raw score,
 mean (SD)
19.1 (5.2)20.0 (5.1)0.51417.6 (4.7)16.1 (4.1)0.04918.4 (5.0)18.0 (5.0)0.382
 Proportion with raw score<13, n (%)
 poor well being
6 (12.0)4 (8.0)0.7397 (14.6)10 (20.8)0.36613 (13.3)14 (14.3)0.655
 Percentage score,
 mean (SD)
76.5 (20.8)80.1 (20.5)0.51470.6 (18.6)64.4 (16.6)0.04973.6 (19.9)72.2 (20.1)0.382
 Proportion with percentage score<25,
 n (%) likely depression
1 (2.0)1 (2.0)0.3174 (8.3)0 (0.0)0.0465 (5.1)1 (1.0)0.180
Self-Efficacy for Diabetes (DSEQ)¶,
mean (SD)
68.7 (16.9)79.8 (10.2)0.00170.7 (12.9)69.1 (10.0)0.44969.7 (15.0)74.4 (11.4)0.027
Medical Outcomes Study: (SF-20) **
Functioning
 Physical functioning
  Median (IQR)91.6 (75–100)100 (91.6–100)0.545100 (100–100)100 (95.8–100)0.009100 (83.3–100)100 (91.6–100)0.282
 Role functioning
  Median (IQR)100 (50–100)100 (100–100)0.084100 (100–100)100 (100–100)0.183100 (100–100)100 (100–100)0.030
 Social functioning
  Median (IQR)100 (100–100)100 (100–100)0.813100 (100–100)100 (100–100)0.542100 (100–100)100 (100–100)0.793
Well-being
 Mental health
  Median (IQR)88 (76–96)92 (84–100)0.06980 (68–88)76 (64–84)0.68184 (72–88)84 (72–92)0.344
 Health perceptions
  Median (IQR)46.8 (32.2–60)65 (41.8–90)<0.00153.6 (30–67.2)48.6 (32.2–61.1)0.89446.8 (30–62.2)56.8 (36.8–76.8)0.005
 Pain
  Median (IQR)40 (0–60)20 (0–60)0.28440 (0–60)40 (20–60)0.40740 (0–60)20 (0–60)0.171
  • Mean (SD) expressed for normally distributed variables and median (IQR) for non-normally distributed variables.

  • *P-value calculated using McNemar’s test or paired t-test or non-parametric Wilcoxon ranksum test.

  • †PHQ-9; responses were for over the last 2 weeks; scale for all responses ranges from 0=not at all to 3=nearly every day; total scores range from 0 to 27 with higher scores indicating poor health status.

  • ‡PAID: Problem Areas in Diabetes; scale for all responses ranges from 0=not a problem to 4=serious problem; total scores range from 0 to 80. The score is multiplied by 1.25 to get the percentage score and a score of>=40 is severe diabetes distress.

  • §WHO Well-Being Index; responses were for over the last 2 weeks; scale for all responses ranges from 0=at no time to 5=all of the time; total raw scores range from 0 to 25, 0 representing worst possible and 25 representing best possible quality of life. The raw score is multiplied by four to obtain a percentage score ranging from 0 to 100.

  • ¶Self-efficacy for Diabetes (Modified version of DSEQ); scale for all responses ranges from 1=not at all confident to 10=totally confident; total scores range from 9 to 90 with higher scores indicating higher self-efficacy.

  • **SF-20; physical functioning total raw score=18, role functioning total raw score=6, social functioning total raw score=6, mental health total raw score=30, health perception total raw score=25, pain total raw score=6. All parameters scaled 0–100. A higher score indicates better functioning or well-being. The only exception is pain: a higher score indicated more pain.