Table 2

Minimally adjusted odds of incident SARS-CoV-2 infection

OR95% CIP valueGroup p value
Age (years)0.980.96 to 0.99<0.001
Female biological sex0.940.63 to 1.390.76
Race/ethnicity
 WhiteReference0.35*
 Black2.040.50 to 8.270.320.24†
 Hispanic (any race)1.20.61 to 2.390.59
 Asian or Pacific Islander0.180.02 to 1.260.08
 Other (including multiracial)1.220.39 to 3.850.73
Highest level of education
 Less than high schoolReference<0.001*
 High school graduate0.910.11 to 7.440.93<0.001†
 Some college0.510.07 to 3.870.520.42‡
 College graduate0.340.05 to 2.560.3
 Postgraduate0.20.03 to 1.510.12
 Other1.020.10 to 10.020.99
MacArthur Subjective Social Status Ladder (per point on scale)0.870.79 to 0.960.004
Working in healthcare1.661.09 to 2.500.017
Medical comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation0.380.09 to 1.550.18
 Anaemia0.650.32 to 1.340.24
 Asthma0.780.40 to 1.550.48
 Coronary artery disease0.460.11 to 1.890.28
 Cancer0.960.39 to 2.340.92
 Congestive heart failure0.990.14 to 7.090.99
 COPD0.840.21 to 3.440.81
 Diabetes1.370.67 to 2.830.39
 Hypertension1.130.75 to 1.710.56
 HIV5.311.65 to 17.120.005
 Other immunodeficiency1.570.58 to 4.250.37
 History of heart attack1.160.28 to 4.730.84
 Sleep apnoea0.910.51 to 1.620.74
 History of stroke10.25 to 4.081
Alcohol use
 NoneReference0.25*
 >0–7 drinks per week0.950.60 to 1.510.830.13†
 >7–14 drinks per week1.010.55 to 1.840.970.047‡
 >14 drinks per week0.130.02 to 0.950.044
Smoking
 Cigarette use in the last 30 days1.910.94 to 3.880.07
 E-cigarette use in the last 30 days2.981.64 to 5.41<0.001
 Marijuana use in the last 30 days1.030.56 to 1.840.93
 Mean sleep duration (per hour of sleep)1.130.86 to 1.490.37
 Living with children at home1.230.89 to 1.710.21
 Living with pets at home1.350.88 to 2.070.17
Use of face masks, last 4–21 days
 ‘Never’Reference
 ‘Sometimes’1.150.50 to 2.610.74
 ‘Most times’ or ‘Always’1.110.45 to 2.720.82
Handwashing frequency, last 4–21 days
 <2 times/dayReference
 2–4 times/day1.360.65 to 2.810.41
 5–10 times/day1.080.59 to 1.950.8
 >10 times/day1.50.81 to 2.770.2
Exercise frequency, last 4–21 days
 <1 time/monthReference
 <1 time/week2.211.31 to 3.760.003
 Approximately weekly1.250.76 to 2.040.38
 2–4 days/week1.180.73 to 1.920.5
 >4 days/week0.910.51 to 1.640.76
 Number of contacts (per 10), last 4–21 days1.171.09 to 1.26<0.001
 Number of events with 10 or more people (per 10), last 4–21 days1.041.03 to 1.05<0.001
 Number of gym visits (per 10), last 4–21 days0.590.15 to 2.350.45
 Number of visits to movie theatres (per 10), last 4–21 days2.171.10 to 4.270.025
 Number of visits to restaurants (per 10), last 4–21 days2.061.57 to 2.70<0.001
  • Models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity and calendar date.

  • *Overall heterogeneity.

  • †Heterogeneity of non-reference levels.

  • ‡Linear trend.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.