Table 2

Mean change in biomedical characteristics from baseline

MalawiMozambiqueOverall
BaselineFollow-upMean change
n=47
P valueBaselineFollow-upMean change
n=48
P valueBaselineFollow-upMean change
n=95
P value
Characteristic
HbA1c
(%)**
9.7
(7.9 to 14.7)
9.8
(7.6 to 13.3)
−0.8
(−1.3 to 0.1)
0.0589.6
(7.6 to 14.7)
8.4
(7.2 to 10.7)
−1.1
(−2.5 to 0.1)
0.1449.6
(7.7 to 14.7)
8.8
(7.4 to 12.1)
−0.9
(−1.4 to −0.1)
<0.001
HbA1c
(mmol/mol)
102.6
(48.4)
89.5
(39.5)
9.7
(32.2)
95.1
(46.5)
77.3
(31.1)
17.8
(39.3)
98.9
(47.4)
83.4
(35.8)
13.8
(35.9)
Glucose
(mmol/L)**
7.5
(5.5 to 10.3)
7.6
(5.6 to 10.7)
−0.4
(−0.9 to 0.4)
0.5899.0
(6.5 to 13.2)
7.7
(5.8 to 12.4)
−0.9
(−1.9 to 0.4)
0.3728.1
(6.2 to 12.0)
7.6
(5.7 to 12.1)
−0.4
(−1.1 to 0.03)
0.313
Total cholesterol
(mmol/L)
5.1
(1.3)
4.9
(1.2)
−0.2
(−0.4 to −0.0)
0.0464.7
(0.9)
4.4
(1.0)
−0.3
(−0.6 to −0.1)
0.0164.9
(1.2)
4.6
(1.1)
−0.3
(−0.4 to −0.1)
0.002
HDL
(mmol/L)
1.3
(0.3)
1.3
(0.3)
−0.1
(−0.1 to 0.0)
0.0691.2
(0.3)
1.3
(0.4)
0.1
(−0.0 to 0.1)
0.0871.2
(0.3)
1.3
(0.3)
0.0
(−0.1 to 0.1)
0.997
LDL
(mmol/L)
3.4
(1.0)
3.3
(0.9)
−0.2
(−0.3 to −0.0)
0.0172.8
(0.9)
2.6
(0.8)
−0.2
(−0.4 to 0.1)
0.1473.1
(1.0)
2.9
(0.9)
−0.2
(−0.3 to −0.0)
0.013
Triglycerides
(mmol/L)**
1.5
(1 to 1.9)
1.3
(0.9 to 2.0)
−0.2
(−0.4 to −0.1)
0.0081.1
(0.8 to 1.6)
1.0
(0.8 to 1.3)
−0.1
(−0.3 to 0.1)
0.1221.3
(0.9 to 1.8)
1.2
(0.8 to 1.7)
−0.2
(−0.3 to −0.1)
0.002
Systolic BP
(mm Hg)
136.8
(20.6)
138.5
(19.3)
0.7
(−3.4 to 4.8)
0.736142.8
(22.6)
130.4
(18.9)
−12.3
(−18.2 to −6.5)
<0.001139.7 (21.7)134.4 (19.4)−5.9
(−9.6 to −2.1)
0.003
Diastolic BP
(mm Hg)
86.8
(8.9)
80.8
(8.9)
−6.1
(−8.9 to −3.3)
<0.00189.6
(10.8)
83.5
(9.2)
−6.1
(−9.4 to −2.8)
0.00188.2
(9.9)
82.2
(9.1)
−6.1
(−8.2 to −4.0)
<0.001
Heart rate
(bpm)
79.7
(14.5)
80.9
(12.8)
1.3
(−2.1 to 4.7)
0.43774.3
(12.4)
76.3
(10.6)
1.9
(−1.5 to 5.4)
0.26977.1
(13.7)
78.6
(11.9)
1.6
(−0.8 to 4.0)
0.178
Weight
(kg)
71.1
(13.9)
71.0
(12.4)
0.1
(−0.9 to 1.1)
0.80982.2
(17.8)
82.0
(17.2)
−0.2
(−1.3 to 1.0)
0.78176.5
(16.7)
76.5
(15.9)
−0.0
(−0.7 to 0.7)
0.595
Waist
(cm)
91.8
(12.6)
91.0
(11.7)
−0.9
(−2.8 to 0.9)
0.32395.6
(15.5)
98.0
(14.4)
2.4
(−0.2 to 4.9)
0.06793.6
(14.2)
94.5
(13.5)
0.8
(−0.8 to 2.4)
0.345
BMI
(kg/m2)
27.4
(5.4)
27.5
(4.9)
0.03
(−0.3 to 0.4)
0.88029.6
(6.4)
29.5
(6.2)
−0.1
(−0.5 to 0.3)
0.74728.5
(6.0)
28.5
(5.7)
−0.0
(−0.3 to 0.3)
0.892
  • All values are mean (Standard deviation (SD) for normally distributed variables), unless otherwise stated. Mean change (95% CI) or **Median change [range] for non-normally distributed variables provided.

  • BMI, Body Mass Index; BP, blood pressure; 95% CI, 95% Confidence interval; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein.