Table 1

Characteristics of included participants’ visits stratified by gender

VariablesMale (n: 33 532)
Mean±SD/counts (%)
Female (n: 31 200)
Mean±SD/counts (%)
P value
CVD deaths853 (2.54)411 (1.32)<0.001
Age
 65–7418 258 (54.45)22 675 (72.68)<0.001
 ≥7515 274 (45.55)8525 (27.32)
BMI
 18.5≤BMI<24 (normal)15 390 (45.90)14 452 (46.32)<0.001
 BMI <18.51308 (3.90)1237 (3.96)
 24≤BMI<2711 355 (33.86)9305 (29.82)
 27≤BMI< 304205 (12.54)4336 (13.90)
 30≤BMI< 351182 (3.52)1664 (5.33)
 BMI≥3592 (0.27)206 (0.66)
Heart disease history8651 (25.80)7462 (23.92)<0.001
Hypertension history25 023 (74.62)23 369 (74.90)0.424
Diabetes mellitus history9317 (27.79)8390 (26.89)0.011
Smoking status
 Non-smoking29 447 (87.82)30 238 (96.92)<0.001
 Smoking occasionally2250 (6.71)585 (1.87)
 Smoking every day1835 (5.47)377 (1.21)
Drinking status
 Non-drinking24 569 (73.27)28 240 (90.51)<0.001
 Drinking8963 (26.73)2960 (9.49)
Creatine (mg/dL)1.14±0.470.88±0.47<0.001
eGFR category
 eGFR ≥90561 (1.67)1487 (4.77)<0.001
 90>eGFR≥ 6015 266 (45.53)17 943 (57.51)
 60>eGFR≥ 4513 882 (41.40)9180 (29.42)
 eGFR<453823 (11.40)2590 (8.30)
eGFR decline
 Slope > −529 441 (87.80)26 739 (85.70)<0.001
 Slope ≤ −54091 (12.20)4461 (14.30)
Urine protein
 –27 513 (82.05)27 074 (86.78)<0.001
 +/–, +, ++5681 (16.94)3962 (12.70)
 +++, ++++338 (1.01)164 (0.53)
No of visits4.35±2.024.11±1.93<0.001
Duration of follow-up (years)4.22±2.134.04±2.10<0.001
  • Continuous variables are presented as mean±SD; category variables are expressed as a count (%).

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.