Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of attenders and non-attenders along with crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for attendance versus non-attendance

Dependent: Attended*Attended n=70405 (83.4%)Did not attend n=14044 (16.6%)Univariable OR (95% CI, p-value)Multivariable adjusted OR† (95% CI, p-value)
Age
 12–17 years276 (78.9)74 (21.1)0.73 (0.57–0.95, p=0.016)0.71 (0.52–0.99, p=0.036)
 18–30 years††1003 (64.9)543 (35.1)0.36 (0.32–0.40, p<0.001)0.42 (0.36–0.49, p<0.001)
 31–45 years8296 (77.2)2454 (22.8)0.66 (0.62–0.70, p<0.001)0.71 (0.66–0.76, p<0.001)
 46–60 years (Reference)25 779 (83.7)5029 (16.3)
 61–75 years24 482 (86.4)3856 (13.6)1.24 (1.18–1.30, p<0.001)1.28 (1.21–1.35, p<0.001)
 76–90 years10 109 (84.0)1930 (16.0)1.02 (0.97–1.08, p=0.461)1.20 (1.11–1.29, p<0.001)
 >90 years††460 (74.4)158 (25.6)0.57 (0.47–0.68, p<0.001)0.92 (0.73–1.17, p=0.487)
 Per decade (Mean (SD))6.0 (1.4)5.8 (1.6)1.14 (1.13–1.15, p<0.001)1.17 (1.15–1.19, p<0.001)
Gender
 Male (Reference)37 569 (83.3)7558 (16.7)
 Female32 836 (83.5)6486 (16.5)1.02 (0.98–1.06, p=0.323)0.99 (0.95–1.04, p=0.717)
Ethnicity
 White British (Reference)20 040 (81.9)4435 (18.1)
 Mixed845 (77.7)242 (22.3)0.77 (0.67–0.90, p=0.001)0.90 (0.75–1.09, p=0.264)
 Black11 869 (82.9)2454 (17.1)1.07 (1.01–1.13, p=0.014)1.02 (0.95–1.09, p=0.590)
 South Asian29 708 (85.4)5084 (14.6)1.29 (1.24–1.35, p<0.001)1.16 (1.09–1.23, p<0.001)
 Chinese536 (89.8)61 (10.2)1.94 (1.50–2.56, p<0.001)1.91 (1.39–2.71, p<0.001)
 Any other Asian background4683 (88.0)640 (12.0)1.62 (1.48–1.77, p<0.001)1.30 (1.17–1.45, p<0.001)
 Any other ethnic group2248 (83.0)460 (17.0)1.08 (0.97–1.20, p=0.145)1.05 (0.92–1.20, p=0.453)
 Unknown††476 (41.6)668 (58.4)0.16 (0.14–0.18, p<0.001)0.32 (0.27–0.38, p<0.001)
IMD quintiles
 1st (most deprived, reference)20 136 (81.9)4456 (18.1)
 2nd32 163 (83.5)6359 (16.5)1.12 (1.07–1.17, p<0.001)1.09 (1.04–1.15, p=0.001)
 3rd12 196 (84.7)2203 (15.3)1.23 (1.16–1.30, p<0.001)1.17 (1.10–1.26, p<0.001)
 4th4457 (85.1)778 (14.9)1.27 (1.17–1.38, p<0.001)1.15 (1.04–1.27, p=0.009)
 5th (Least deprived)1453 (85.4)248 (14.6)1.30 (1.13–1.49, p<0.001)1.25 (1.06–1.50, p=0.012)
 Per quintile (Median (IQR))2 (1–4)2 (1–3)1.08 (1.05–1.10, p<0.001)1.06 (1.03–1.08, p<0.001)
Type of diabetes
 Type 1 DM2223 (75.8)710 (24.2)0.55 (0.51–0.60, p<0.001)1.09 (0.96–1.25, p=0.190)
 Type 2 DM (Reference)67 265 (85.0)11 851 (15.0)
 MODY40 (81.6)9 (18.4)0.78 (0.40–1.72, p=0.508)0.85 (0.40–2.07, p=0.687)
 Not specified/other††877 (37.3)1474 (62.7)0.10 (0.10–0.11, p<0.001)0.46 (0.40–0.53, p<0.001)
Duration of diabetes
 1–10 years (Reference)44 890 (83.6)8778 (16.4)
 11–20 years20 327 (86.3)3236 (13.7)1.23 (1.18–1.28, p<0.001)0.99 (0.92–1.06, p=0.727)
 >20 years5057 (83.8)977 (16.2)1.01 (0.94–1.09, p=0.743)0.87 (0.78–0.97, p=0.011)
 Unknown††131 (11.1)1053 (88.9)0.02 (0.02–0.03, p<0.001)0.35 (0.26–0.47, p<0.001)
 Per 5 years(Mean (SD))1.9 (1.5)1.7 (1.5)1.05 (1.04–1.07, p<0.001)0.97 (0.95–1.00, p=0.019)
Distance to centre
 ≤1–2 km (Reference)55 436 (83.8)10 752 (16.2)
 3–5 km12 895 (82.4)2758 (17.6)0.91 (0.87–0.95, p<0.001)0.97 (0.91–1.03, p=0.301)
 6–8 km1044 (80.4)254 (19.6)0.80 (0.70–0.92, p=0.001)0.90 (0.75–1.09, p=0.268)
 ≥9 km190 (75.7)61 (24.3)0.60 (0.46–0.81, p=0.001)0.66 (0.46–0.97, p=0.027)
 Unknown840 (79.3)219 (20.7)0.74 (0.64–0.87, p<0.001)0.93 (0.77–1.12, p=0.433)
 Per km(Mean (SD))1.7 (1.6)1.8 (1.7)0.97 (0.96–0.98, p<0.001)0.99 (0.97–1.00, p=0.031)
PTAL tertiles
 1st tertile23 281 (83.2)4714 (16.8)0.95 (0.90–1.01, p=0.083)0.95 (0.89–1.02, p=0.189)
 2nd tertile36 535 (83.4)7291 (16.6)0.96 (0.91–1.02, p=0.192)0.97 (0.90–1.03, p=0.309)
 3rd tertile (Reference)10 589 (83.9)2039 (16.1)
Visual acuity
 Better than 6/614 069 (88.7)1798 (11.3)0.93 (0.88–0.98, p=0.007)1.08 (1.02–1.15, p=0.007)
 6/6 to 6/9 (Reference)52 035 (89.4)6158 (10.6)
 <6/9 to 6/183459 (84.7)626 (15.3)0.65 (0.60–0.72, p<0.001)0.60 (0.55–0.66, p<0.001)
 Worse than 6/18††683 (78.4)188 (21.6)0.43 (0.37–0.51, p<0.001)0.40 (0.34–0.48, p<0.001)
 Per five letters(Mean (SD))16.5 (1.6)16.3 (2.0)1.07 (1.06–1.08, p<0.001)1.12 (1.11–1.14, p<0.001)
Years of registration
 1–5 years (Reference)28 809 (80.9)6822 (19.1)
 6–10 years22 948 (84.8)4103 (15.2)1.32 (1.27–1.38, p<0.001)1.13 (1.07–1.20, p<0.001)
 11–15 years18 242 (85.6)3072 (14.4)1.41 (1.34–1.47, p<0.001)1.22 (1.12–1.33, p<0.001)
 16–20 years406 (89.6)47 (10.4)2.05 (1.53–2.81, p<0.001)1.94 (1.35–2.89, p=0.001)
 Per year(Mean (SD))6.9 (3.9)6.3 (3.91.04 (1.04–1.05, p<0.001)1.02 (1.01–1.03, p<0.001)
  • Observations are for 84 449 individuals.

  • Bold p values indicate statistically significant results

  • Independent variables with missing data categorised as “Unknown”: type of diabetes (2.8%), duration of diabetes (1.4%), distance to screening centre (1.3%), and ethnicity (1.4%).

  • *ORs greater than one imply greater odds of attendance.

  • †ORs mutually adjusted for all factors shown in the table.

  • ‡Variable groups with uptake below the national diabetic eye screening programme uptake goal of≥75%. Independent variables with missing data categorised as “Unknown”: type of diabetes (2.8%), duration of diabetes (1.4%), distance to screening centre (1.3%), and ethnicity (1.4%).

  • IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; MODY, Maturity onset diabetes of the young; PTAL, Public Transport Accessibility Level.