Table 1

Measurements of protein status considered in the review

AnthropometricBody composition (fat free mass, lean body mass and / or skeletal muscle mass) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis, total body electrical conductivity, BodPod whole body air-displacement plethysmography or skinfolds.
Biochemical3-methylhistidine concentrations, albumin, prealbumin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, urea production, blood urea nitrogen, urinary nitrogen, total body nitrogen, whole-body protein metabolism, and plasma amino acids concentrations, urea production and creatinine (where the author(s) have specifically used these as a measure of protein status).
FunctionalHand-grip strength, the Short Physical Performance Test (including tests of balance, gait speed and timed sit-to-stand), one-repetition max (or a five-repetition max for older adults) and VO2max testing (or VO2peak for older adults) and other validated measures of muscle function (ie, isokinetic quadriceps strength using dynamometry and vertical jump performance using force platform technology).