Table 1

Descriptive statistics for variables employed in study (created by the authors)

Variable descriptionObsMeanSDMinMax
Mortality rate, population and expenditure variables
 Years of life lost rate, standardised, per 100 000 population, 2013/2014/2015 pooled151443.385267.5775.9
 Local authority population, 2013/2014151369 361271 89723811 481 378
 Social service spend per person, 2013/2014, £151306.646.58209.08660.42
 NHS healthcare spend per person, 2013/2014, £1511152.1375.811019.891479.11
 Public health expenditure per person, 2013/2014, £15252.625.1518.52182.21
Controls
 Index of Multiple Deprivation 201015223.07538.6045.446643.4465
 Young adult social service need per person1511.00000.25190.43411.7546
 Older adult social service need per person1511.00000.23290.57141.9716
 Proportion of all residents born outside the European Union1520.12810.11470.01440.5060
 Proportion of population in white ethnic group1520.83640.16260.28970.9882
 Proportion of population providing unpaid care1520.10080.01380.06510.1289
 Proportion of population aged 16–74 with no qualifications1520.24690.06060.07200.3874
 Proportion of households without a car1520.28620.12480.08990.6940
 Proportion of households that are one pensioner households, 20111520.12060.02080.05960.1667
 Proportion of households that are lone parent households with dependent children1520.07450.01850.702080.1436
 Proportion of population aged 16–74 that are permanently sick1520.04240.01490.00860.0879
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 that are long-term unemployed1520.01830.00580.00430.0367
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 in employment that are working agriculture1520.00640.00990.00030.0572
 Proportion of those aged 16–74 in managerial and professional occupations1520.31140.07690.18350.6674
Instruments: for social service (GSS) expenditure
 Type of LA: county council1520.17760.38350.00001.0000
 Type of LA: London borough1520.21710.41360.00001.0000
 Type of LA: metropolitan district1520.23680.42660.00001.0000
 Type of LA: unitary authority1520.36840.48400.00001.0000
 Input price index for older people’s social services1521.04260.06341.00001.3607
 Population sparsity measure1511.00570.00791.00001.0345
 Proportion of households that are owner occupied1520.61900.11520.26110.8086
Instruments: for public health (PH) expenditure
 Distance from target index, public health expenditure, 2013/20141521.06670.53620.53626.6247
 Input price index (MFF), public health expenditure, 2013/20141521.01220.07900.91511.2076
Instruments: for NHS healthcare (PB) expenditure
 Distance from target index, NHS healthcare expenditure1521.00550.05150.92821.2250
 Input price index (MFF), resource allocation HCHS formula1521.00630.06430.93191.1416
 Age index, resource allocation prescribing formula1520.97760.12830.64221.3007
  • HCHS, Hospital and Community Health Services; LA, local authority; MFF, market forces factor; NHS, National Health Service.