Table 1

Descriptive statistics of the unweighted and weighted samples

(n=22 463)
Weighted (n=14 783)
mean (SE)
mean (SE)
Community cultural engagement, wave 2
 Cultural events*2.19 (1.47)2.22 (0.01)
 Museums and heritage sites*1.95 (1.50)1.96 (0.01)
Mental well-being, wave 5
 Life satisfaction†5.03 (1.51)5.06 (0.01)
 Mental distress (GHQ-12, ranging from 1 to 4)1.93 (0.00)1.92 (0.00)
 Mental health functioning (SF-12; ranging from 1 to 5)3.74 (0.00)3.76 (0.01)
Demographic backgrounds, wave 2
 Age47.8 (16.9)46.9 (0.17)
 Gender (%)
 Ethnicity (%)
  Asian/Asian British7.895.37
  Black/black British3.662.22
 Living alone (%)
 Partnership status (%)
  Single and never married17.721.9
  Married or in cohabitation67.864.3
  Separated or divorced or widowed14.513.8
 Responsible for child(ren) under 16 years (%)
 Regions (%)
  North (North East, North West and Yorkshire and the Humber)27.928.2
  Midlands (East Midlands and West Midlands)19.918.8
  South (London, South East, South West and East)52.253.1
Socioeconomic position, wave 2
Educational levels (%)
 University degree37.235.2
 Advanced (higher education/A-level)19.620.2
 GCSE or equivalent21.421.3
 Unrecognised/no qualification21.923.3
Occupational socioeconomic status (%)
 Intermediate/small employment/own account15.715.5
 Lower supervision/lower technician/semi-routine/routine21.022.5
 Not in employment (incl. retired, full-time student)34.734.3
Household monthly gross income (%)
 £2355–£32 62228.328.2
Housing tenure (%)
 House owner74.272.1
 Social rent15.415.9
 Private rent10.512.0
Levels of area deprivation‡5.66 (2.84)5.70 (0.03)
  • *A six-point scale, ranging from ‘not once in the last 12 months’, ‘once in the last 12 months’, ‘twice in the last 12 months’, ‘less often than once a month but at least three or four times a year’, ‘less often than once a week but at least once a month’ to ‘at least once a week’.

  • †Life satisfaction was measured using a scale from 1 ‘completely unsatisfied’ to 7 ‘completely satisfied’.

  • ‡Levels of area deprivation was derived from the Index of Multiple Deprivation, which has a scale from 1: ‘most deprived 10%’ to 10: ‘least deprived 10%’.

  • GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; GHQ-12, 12-item General Health Questionnaire; SF-12, 12-item Short Form Health Survey.