Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of study sample, overall and by diabetes type

Sociodemographic characteristicsTotal
n=667
T1DM
120 (17.99%)
T2DM
547 (82.01%)
Age, mean (SD)
 Years51.85 (14.57)45.96 (14.43)53.14 (14.29)
Age (categorical), n (%)
 ≥18 and ≤40 years180 (26.99)51 (42.50)129 (23.58)
 ≥41 and ≤64 years332 (49.78)53 (44.17)279 (51.01)
 ≥65 and ≤74 years123 (18.44)11 (9.17)112 (20.48)
 ≥75 years32 (4.80)5 (4.17)27 (4.94)
Sex assigned at birth, n (%)
 Male326 (48.88)40 (33.33)286 (52.29)
 Female341 (51.12)80 (66.67)261 (47.71)
Race, n (%)
 White555 (83.21)111 (92.50)444 (81.17)
 Black or African American52 (7.80)3 (2.50)49 (8.96)
 Asian17 (2.55)3 (2.50)14 (2.56)
 Hispanic, Latino/Latina or Spanish origin13 (1.95)1 (0.83)12 (2.19)
 American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander4 (0.60)04 (0.73)
 Multiracial23 (3.45)2 (1.67)21 (3.84)
 Other3 (0.45)03 (0.55)
Hispanic, Latino/Latina or Spanish origin, n (%)
 Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano27 (4.05)2 (1.67)25 (4.57)
 Puerto Rican6 (0.90)1 (0.83)5 (0.91)
 Cuban2 (0.30)02 (0.37)
 Other Hispanic, Latino/Latina or Spanish origin3 (0.45)1 (0.83)2 (0.37)
 Not of Hispanic, Latino/Latina or Spanish origin629 (94.30)116 (96.67)513 (93.78)
Highest level of education, n (%)
 Elementary or high school (no diploma)10 (1.50)3 (2.50)7 (1.28)
 High school diploma or General Educational Development (GED)/alternative credential101 (15.14)19 (15.83)82 (14.99)
 College degree or some college425 (63.72)75 (62.50)350 (63.99)
 Degree beyond completing first college bachelor’s degree131 (19.64)23 (19.17)108 (19.74)
Current employment status, n (%)
 Employed full time or part-time (including self-employment)346 (51.87)73 (60.83)273 (49.91)
 Temporarily laid off/temporarily unemployed due to a health issue4 (0.60)1 (0.83)3 (0.55)
 Unable to work due to disability84 (12.59)11 (9.17)73 (13.35)
 Unemployed55 (8.25)15 (12.50)40 (7.31)
 Student4 (0.60)1 (0.83)3 (0.55)
 Retired174 (26.09)19 (15.83)155 (28.34)
Total annual household income (before taxes and deductions), n (%)
 <$24 999107 (16.21)13 (11.21)94 (17.28)
 $25 000 to $54 999173 (26.21)25 (21.55)148 (27.21)
 $55 000 to $84 999142 (21.52)39 (33.62)103 (18.93)
 $85 000 to $114 999109 (16.52)22 (18.97)87 (15.99)
 ≥$115 000129 (19.55)17 (14.66)112 (20.59)
Current healthcare insurance, n (%)
 Insurance through a current or former employer or union that is not a high-deductible plan*153 (22.94)36 (30.00)117 (21.39)
 Insurance purchased directly from an insurance company that is not a high-deductible plan*49 (7.35)11 (9.17)38 (6.95)
 High-deductible plan*34 (5.10)11 (9.17)23 (4.20)
 Medicare77 (11.54)7 (5.83)70 (12.80)
 Medicaid, Medical Assistance or other government assistance plan74 (11.09)17 (14.17)57 (10.42)
 TRICARE and Veterans Affairs9 (1.35)2 (1.67)7 (1.28)
 Other5 (0.75)2 (1.67)3 (0.55)
 Two or more insurance plans257 (38.53)32 (26.67)225 (41.13)
 No insurance coverage at all9 (1.35)2 (1.67)7 (1.28)
  • Responses may not sum to total (n=667) due to missing data.

  • *High-deductible plan: deductible >$1350 for an individual or >$2700 for a family.

  • T1DM, type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus.