Table 1

Descriptive statistics

Enrolment dateTotal
Historical controls*6M before COVID-19†COVID-19 era‡
Sex, n (%)
 Male16 696 (47)2857 (46.9)825 (45.5)20 378 (46.9)
 Female18 806 (53)3235 (53.1)987 (54.5)23 028 (53.1)
 ‘Other’ or missing83 (0.2)17 (0.3)3 (0.2)103 (0.2)
Age (years), n (%)
 <355041 (14.2)750 (12.3)224 (12.3)6015 (13.8)
 35–5413 818 (38.8)2205 (36.1)652 (35.9)16 675 (38.3)
 55+16 709 (47)3150 (51.6)939 (51.7)20 798 (47.8)
 Missing17 (0)4 (0.1)0 (0)21 (0.1)
Past week employment status, n (%)
 Not working14 244 (42)2415 (41.9)731 (45.9)17 390 (42.1)
 Employed15 300 (45.1)2581 (44.8)512 (32.1)18 393 (44.6)
 Employed but absent1362 (4)238 (4.1)162 (10.2)1762 (4.3)
 Permanently unable to work3023 (8.9)525 (9.1)189 (11.9)3737 (9.1)
 Missing1656 (4.7)350 (5.7)221 (12.2)2227 (5.1)
Education, n (%)
 <Secondary7897 (24)1251 (22.8)358 (24.1)9506 (23.9)
 Secondary8790 (26.7)1475 (26.8)406 (27.4)10 671 (26.8)
 Some postsecondary5596 (17)927 (16.9)217 (14.6)6740 (16.9)
 Postsecondary10 582 (32.2)1842 (33.5)503 (33.9)12 927 (32.4)
 Missing2720 (7.6)614 (10.1)331 (18.2)3665 (8.4)
Household income, n (%)
 <=$20 0006158 (28.1)982 (28.6)259 (29.3)7399 (28.2)
 $20 001–$60 0008935 (40.8)1346 (39.2)364 (41.1)10 645 (40.6)
 >$60 0006811 (31.1)1108 (32.2)262 (29.6)8181 (31.2)
 Missing13 681 (38.4)2673 (43.8)930 (51.2)17 284 (39.7)
Mental health diagnosis§, n (%)
 No17 581 (54)2838 (52.1)710 (45.5)21 129 (53.4)
 Yes14 981 (46)2613 (47.9)850 (54.5)18 444 (46.6)
 Missing3023 (8.5)658 (10.8)255 (14)3936 (9.1)
Physical health diagnosis¶, n (%)
 No18 443 (57.6)2952 (55)746 (49)22 141 (56.9)
 Yes13 550 (42.4)2413 (45)778 (51)16 741 (43.1)
 Missing3592 (10.1)744 (12.2)291 (16)4627 (10.6)
Substance use disorder diagnosis**, n (%)
 No29 998 (89.2)4968 (87.9)1344 (84.7)36 310 (88.9)
 Yes3616 (10.8)685 (12.1)243 (15.3)4544 (11.1)
 Missing1971 (5.5)456 (7.5)228 (12.6)2655 (6.1)
Previous lifetime quit attempts, n (%)
 None3203 (9.2)507 (8.4)127 (7.1)3837 (9)
 1–5 times21 884 (62.6%)3749 (62.4%)1095 (61.4%)26 728 (62.5%)
 6–10 times5464 (15.6)968 (16.1)323 (18.1)6755 (15.8)
 11 or more times4406 (12.6)783 (13)238 (13.3)5427 (12.7)
 Missing628 (1.8)102 (1.7)32 (1.8)762 (1.8)
Quit date specified, n (%)
 No16 121 (45.3)2807 (45.9)927 (51.1)19 855 (45.6)
 Yes19 464 (54.7)3302 (54.1)888 (48.9)23 654 (54.4)
 Missing0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
First cigarette after waking, n (%)
 Within 5 min12 940 (36.6)2161 (35.6)678 (37.7)15 779 (36.5)
 6–30 min14 431 (40.8)2551 (42.1%)726 (40.3)17 708 (41)
 31–60 min4646 (13.1)760 (12.5)211 (11.7)5617 (13)
 More than 60 min3329 (9.4)591 (9.7)185 (10.3)4105 (9.5)
 Missing239 (0.7)46 (0.8)15 (0.8)300 (0.7)
Cigarettes per day, n (%)
 <104599 (13)864 (14.2)251 (13.8)5714 (13.1)
 10–1913 001 (36.6)2205 (36.1)643 (35.4)15 849 (36.4)
 20 to 2913 248 (37.3)2295 (37.6)658 (36.3)16 201 (37.2)
 30 to 392500 (7)379 (6.2)134 (7.4)3013 (6.9)
 40+2157 (6.1)360 (5.9)129 (7.1)2732 (6.3)
 Missing80 (0.2)6 (0.1)0 (0)86 (0.2)
Confidence in ability to quit
 Low (1-4)2771 (7.9)425 (7)130 (7.2)3326 (7.7)
 Moderate (5-7)13 705 (38.9)2374 (39.3)681 (38)16 760 (38.9)
 High (8-10)18 749 (53.2)3235 (53.6)983 (54.8)22 967 (53.4)
 Missing360 (1)75 (1.2)21 (1.2)456 (1.1)
Importance of quitting
 Low (1-4)281 (0.8)51 (0.8)13 (0.7)345 (0.8)
 Moderate (5-7)3352 (9.5)556 (9.2)145 (8.1)4053 (9.4)
 High (8-10)31 699 (89.7)5451 (90)1642 (91.2)38 792 (89.8)
 Missing253 (0.7)51 (0.8)15 (0.8)319 (0.7)
  • *11 April 2016–16 September 2019.

  • †17 September 2019–16 March 2020.

  • ‡17 March 2020–16 July 2020.

  • §Lifetime diagnosis of depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.

  • ¶Lifetime diagnosis of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • **Lifetime diagnosis of non-tobacco substance use disorder.

  • 6M, 6 months.