Table 4

Predictors of all-cause patient mortality at 30 days, by surgeon–anaesthesiologist sex discordance

VariableAdjusted OR (95% CI)P value
Physician characteristics
Physician sex discordance0.93 (0.80 to 1.07)0.30
Surgeon experience, years
 <10ReferenceReference
 11–201.24 (0.93 to 1.66)0.14
 21–301.07 (0.76 to 1.51)0.71
 >301.26 (0.83 to 1.91)0.28
Surgeon volume, per 100 cases1.00 (0.99 to 1.01)0.55
Anaesthesiologist volume, per 100 cases1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.79
Anaesthesiologist experience, years
 <10ReferenceReference
 11–201.15 (0.92 to 1.45)0.22
 21–301.01 (0.78 to 1.31)0.93
 >301.03 (0.78 to 1.37)0.82
Patient characteristics
Patient age, per 10 year1.69 (1.57 to 1.80)<0.001
Female patient sex1.56 (1.37 to 1.77)<0.001
Income quintile
11.44 (1.20 to 1.73)<0.001
21.24 (1.03 to 1.48)0.03
31.19 (0.99 to 1.44)0.07
41.09 (0.90 to 1.33)0.36
5ReferenceReference
Rural residence0.95 (0.81 to 1.12)0.57
Community hospital1.24 (0.81 to 1.91)0.33
Hypertension1.01 (0.81 to 1.25)0.95
Atrial fibrillation1.14 (0.97 to 1.35)0.11
Recent MI within 30 days1.39 (1.20 to 1.61)<0.001
Remote MI1.24 (1.07 to 1.44)0.006
Previous PCI1.03 (0.88 to 1.21)0.70
Left ventricular ejection fraction
 ≥50ReferenceReference
 35–491.23 (1.07 to 1.42)0.004
 20–351.72 (1.46 to 2.04)<0.001
 <202.52 (1.91 to 3.32)<0.001
Heart failure1.90 (1.67 to 2.17)<0.001
Peripheral arterial disease1.45 (1.26 to 1.67)<0.001
Cerebrovascular disease1.37 (1.19 to 1.59)<0.001
Dementia2.46 (1.37 to 4.41)0.003
Depression0.97 (0.66 to 1.42)0.86
Psychosis1.42 (0.56 to 3.60)0.46
Smoking status
 NeverReferenceReference
 Current1.01 (0.84 to 1.20)0.96
 Former1.01 (0.89 to 1.15)0.87
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.33 (1.18 to 1.49)<0.001
Pulmonary circulatory disorder1.68 (1.33 to 2.13)<0.001
Serum creatinine (µmol/L)
 <120ReferenceReference
 120–1791.67 (1.44 to 1.94)<0.001
 >=1802.78 (2.23 to 3.45)<0.001
Dialysis1.14 (0.86 to 1.50)0.37
Diabetes0.96 (0.85 to 1.08)0.49
Hypothyroidism0.75 (0.52 to 1.08)0.12
Morbid obesity0.97 (0.86 to 1.09)0.61
Primary cancer0.97 (0.77 to 1.22)0.81
Metastatic cancer1.16 (0.59 to 2.31)0.66
Anaemia1.25 (1.08 to 1.45)0.002
Venous thromboembolism1.39 (0.80 to 2.44)0.25
Liver disease1.45 (0.94 to 2.25)0.09
Alcohol abuse1.21 (0.80 to 1.81)0.37
Frailty0.82 (0.71 to 0.95)0.01
Redo sternotomy1.10 (0.87 to 1.40)0.44
Emergent surgery2.91 (2.49 to 3.39)<0.001
Complex surgery1.32 (1.14 to 1.53)0.0002
Surgery duration, per 10 min1.07 (1.07 to 1.08)<0.001
  • Total case volumes reflect the number of cases performed since 1991 until the date of the index procedure.

  • MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.