Table 1

Patient characteristics by surgeon–anaesthesiologist sex discordance in all cardiac surgery patients

VariableDiscordant
(n=19 893)
Concordant
(n=59 969)
Standardised differenceP value
Age, mean±SD, years66.3±10.466.4±10.400.76
Female sex, n (%)4678 (23.5)14 010 (23.4)00.66
Income quintile, n (%)
 13762 (18.9)11 771 (19.6)0.020.01
 23966 (19.9)12 374 (20.6)0.02
 34162 (20.9)12 226 (20.4)0.01
 44052 (20.4)11 970 (20.0)0.01
 53951 (19.9)11 628 (19.4)0.01
Rural residence, n (%)17 212 (86.5)50 595 (84.4)0.06<0.001
Hospital type, n (%)
 Community6236 (31.3)18 104 (30.2)0.030.002
 Teaching13 657 (68.7)41 865 (69.8)0.03
Hypertension, n (%)17 203 (86.5)51 845 (86.5)00.93
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)1256 (6.3)3830 (6.4)00.72
Recent MI within 30 days, n (%)5002 (25.1)15 047 (25.1)00.88
Remote MI, n (%)4129 (20.8)13 003 (21.7)0.020.006
Previous PCI, n (%)3048 (15.3)9161 (15.3)00.88
Left ventricular ejection fraction, n (%)
 ≥5013 768 (69.2)41 267 (68.8)0.010.37
 35–494257 (21.4)12 841 (21.4)0
 20–351591 (8.0)4949 (8.3)0.01
 <20277 (1.4)912 (1.5)0.01
Heart failure, n (%)4703 (23.6)14 697 (24.5)0.020.01
Peripheral arterial disease, n (%)2334 (11.7)7040 (11.7)00.98
Cerebrovascular disease n (%)1952 (9.8)5887 (9.8)00.99
Dementia, n (%)31 (0.2)132 (0.2)0.010.08
Depression, n (%)300 (1.5)814 (1.4)0.010.12
Psychosis, n (%)31 (0.2)132 (0.2)0.010.08
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never8759 (44.0)26 942 (44.9)0.020.001
 Current3852 (19.4)11 922 (19.9)0.01
 Former7282 (36.6)21 105 (35.2)0.03
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%)5705 (28.7)17 303 (28.9)00.64
Pulmonary circulation disorder, n (%)387 (1.9)1195 (2.0)00.68
Serum creatinine (µmol/L), n (%)
 <12017 529 (88.1)52 151 (87.0)0.03<0.001
 120–1791736 (8.7)5670 (9.5)0.03
 ≥180628 (3.2)2148 (3.6)0.02
Dialysis, n (%)384 (1.9)1298 (2.2)0.020.05
Diabetes, n (%)8994 (45.2)27 182 (45.3)00.78
Hypothyroidism, n (%)406 (2.0)1004 (1.7)0.03<0.001
Morbid obesity, n (%)9471 (47.6)25 824 (43.1)0.09<0.001
Primary cancer, n (%)980 (4.9)2928 (4.9)00.80
Metastatic cancer, n (%)96 (0.5)285 (0.5)00.90
Anaemia, n (%)2079 (10.5)6027 (10.1)0.010.11
Venous thromboembolism, n (%)82 (0.4)214 (0.4)0.010.27
Liver disease, n (%)179 (0.9)510 (0.9)0.010.51
Alcohol abuse, n (%)303 (1.5)835 (1.4)0.010.18
Frailty, n (%)2902 (14.6)9683 (16.1)0.04<0.001
Surgery type, n (%)
 CABG15 672 (78.8)46 842 (78.1)0.020.05
 Single valve2244 (11.3)6708 (11.2)0
 Multiple valves283 (1.4)923 (1.5)0.01
 CABG+single valve1583 (8.0)5122 (8.5)0.02
 CABG+multiple valves111 (0.6)374 (0.6)0.01
Redo sternotomy, n (%)460 (2.3)1695 (2.8)0.03<0.001
Emergent surgery, n (%)1197 (6.0)3674 (6.1)00.58
Surgery duration, median (IQR), min273 (232–320)260 (220–307)0.2<0.001
  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.