Table 1

Characteristics of the included articles

Author(s)DateAimCountry originDesignTotal NPhysical condition
Al Rajeh et al152019Explore the use of telehealth and assess the perceptions of clinicians employing telehealth and specifically alarm settings on technology.UKCross-sectional65Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Amatya et al262015Investigate the effectiveness and safety of telerehabilitation.Europe and USASystematic review564Multiple sclerosis
Anton et al172018Develop and examine the Kinext Telerehabilitation System for physical conditions.Spain and AustraliaFeasibility18Shoulder disorder; hip replacement
Block et al272016Perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases.USASystematic review943Neurological diseases
Calvaresi et al182019Examine the feasibility of using artificial intelligence for telerehabilitation.ItalyMixed-methods10General physical conditions
GiesbrechtandMiller222019Evaluate the effect of a mHealth wheelchair skills training programme on clinical outcomes among older adult manual wheelchair clients.CanadaRCT18Physical disability needing wheelchair
Grau-Pellicer et al232020Investigate the effectiveness of a mHealth app.SpainRCT41Ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke
Guerra de Oliveira Gondim et al242017Evaluate the effects of individualised orientation and monitoring by telephone in a self-supervised home therapeutic exercise programme on signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease and quality of life.BrazilRCT28Parkinson’s disease
Hasenohrl et al192020Assess the feasibility and acceptance of orthopaedists prescribing individualised therapeutic exercises via a smartphone app to patients.AustriaQualitative27Back pain
Levac et al202018Develop and conduct a usability evaluation of the Fun, Interactive Therapy Board (FITBoard), a movement toy for children with disabilities.USAObservational7General movement conditions
Teleswallowing Ltd312020Provide evidence-based guidance on designing and establishing telerehabilitation services for dysphagia.UKGuidanceN/ADysphagia
Mani et al282017Systematically explore and summarise the validity and reliability of a telerehabilitation-based physiotherapy assessment.MalaysiaSystematic reviewNSMSK conditions
Middleton et al162020Describe the process and cost of delivering a synchronous telehealth exercise programme.USAObservational1Stroke, hypertension and diabetes
Paneroni et al212015Test the feasibility, adherence and satisfaction of a home-based reinforcement telerehabilitation programme.ItalyObservational36Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Charted Society of Physiotherapy332020Provide guidance for physiotherapists on digital tools to support service delivery.UKGuidanceN/AGeneral physical conditions
Charted Society of Physiotherapy322020Provide guidance for physiotherapists on telephone triage of patients with musculoskeletal conditions.UKGuidanceN/AMSK conditions
Charted Society of Physiotherapy342020Provide practical advice for physiotherapists and support workers to implement remote consultations.UKGuidanceN/AGeneral physical conditions
Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists362020Provide brief tips for telerehabilitation implementation revolved around security.UKGuidanceN/AGeneral physical conditions
East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust372020Provide brief tips for telerehabilitation implementation for dysphagia.UKGuidanceN/ADysphagia
Venkataraman et al252016Compare Berg Balance Scale ratings using videos with differing transmission characteristics with direct in-person rating.USAPsychometrics study45General motor control condition
NI Health and Social Care Board NI302020Amalgamate evidence and guidance on the conduct of virtual consultations so that it is easily accessible for AHPs.UKGuidanceN/AGeneral physical conditions
AHPScot292020Guide AHPs in NHS Scotland during remote consultations (telephone or video) with MSK patients during the current COVID-19 pandemic.UKGuidanceN/AMSK conditions
Royal College of Occupational Therapists352020Guide occupational therapists regarding implementation of virtual assessments and reviews.UKGuidanceN/AGeneral physical conditions
  • Guidance documents are highlighted in grey and systematic review articles are highlighted in yellow.

  • AHPs, allied health professionals; MSK, musculoskeletal; N/A, not applicable; NHS, National Health Service; NI, Northern Ireland; NS, not specified; RCT, randomised controlled trial.