Table 3

Standardised mean differences with or without MM/CMM, before and after propensity score matching

MMCMM
SMD in multiply imputed dataSMD in matching dataSMD in multiply imputed dataSMD in matching data
Characteristic
 Age 0.24 0.002 0.327 0.025
 Sex 0.099 0.001 0.139 0.004
 Previous health check-up 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.005
 No of natural teeth 0.11 0.019 0.16 0.005
 Consumption of meat and fish 0.009 0.017 0.017 0.016
 Consumption of fruits and vegetables 0.003 0.006 0.035 0.012
 Formal educational years 0.093 0.045 0.151 0.004
 Marital status 0.072 0.015 0.118 0.002
 Living arrangement 0.06 0.033 0.1 0.011
 Residence type 0.025 0.055 0.058 0.008
 Architectural type of home 0.005 0.086 0.02 0.006
 Financial insecurity 0.123 0.004 0.21 0.012
 Receiving pension 0.023 0.022 0.022 0.006
 Current working status 0.147 0.002 0.225 0.004
 Eats meals alone 0.089 0.02 0.17 0.014
 Alcohol consumption 0.107 0.015 0.145 0.013
 Smoking status 0.079 0.014 0.098 0.016
 Falls 0.223 0.004 0.307 0.013
 Worries about falls 0.266 0.001 0.396 0.005
 Goes upstairs without support 0.265 0.009 0.348 0.005
 Gets up out of a chair without support 0.251 0.02 0.343 0.01
 Average time to walk 0.16 <0.001 0.203 0.001
 Frequency of going out 0.151 0.015 0.207 0.003
 Decrease in the frequency of going out 0.243 0.001 0.352 0.006
 Engagement in leisure activities 0.105 0.016 0.145 0.008
 Trust in neighbours 0.079 0.027 0.135 0.009
 Support from neighbours 0.074 0.015 0.109 0.002
 Attachment to residence 0.053 0.036 0.086 0.002
 Contribution to residence 0.095 0.009 0.129 0.007
 Uneasiness about safety in residence 0.073 0.011 0.105 0.01
 Participation in local events 0.085 0.009 0.114 0.008
 Interactions with neighbourhood 0.02 0.031 0.049 0.007
Residential environment:
 Presence of graffiti or garbage 0.009 0.02 0.019 0.014
 Parks or footpaths 0.059 0.045 0.097 <0.001
 Locations difficult for walking 0.076 0.012 0.132 0.007
 Risky roads or crossroads for traffic accidents 0.044 0.005 0.061 0.002
 Aesthetic views or buildings 0.04 <0.001 0.074 0.004
 Shops selling fresh fruits and vegetables 0.074 0.023 0.091 0.001
 Dangerous place to walk alone at night 0.013 0.019 0.016 <0.001
 Comfortable house or facilities 0.066 0.024 0.107 0.011
 Someone who listens to your concerns 0.019 0.01 0.075 0.007
 Someone to provide care in case of illness 0.049 0.023 0.094 0.026
Attendance
 Sports group or club 0.063 0.008 0.117 0.031
 Leisure activity group 0.06 0.006 0.088 0.007
  • CMM, complex multimorbidity; MM, multimorbidity; SMD, standardised mean difference