Table 1

Literature overview about the performance of the white test for biliary leakage after liver surgery

Study/yearStudy typePatient number
(White test/total)
SubstanceCommercial nameConcentrationDosisSafety informationOxford grade of evidence
Nadalin et al7 2008Technique descriptionNot knownSterile fat emulsion for parenteral nutritionNot given5%10–30 mLNo adverse effects related to transductal injectionNA
Li et al8
2009
Cohort study63/137Fat emulsion for parenteral nutritionNot given5%10–30 mLNo difference in postop complication2b
Liu et al12
2012
Low-quality RCTSterile fat emulsion for parenteral nutritionNot givenNot given20–30 mLNo difference in postop complication2b
Leelawat9 2012Cohort study30/30Fat emulsionNot given5%10–20 mLNot reported2b
Linke et al11 2015Cohort study32/125Fat content parenteral nutrition supplementNot givenNot givenNot givenNot reported2b
Nage et al13 2018Prospective randomised50/100Fat emulsion solutionSMOFlipid20%5%10–20 mLNo significant difference between both groups regarding postop. liver affection (deterioration of the liver synthetic functions) to exclude any toxic effect of the White test on the residual liver2b
  • NA, not applicable.