Table 4

Variation in clinical care and outcomes in COVID-19-positive patients across hospitals

Range across hospitalsP value*
Min10th Pctl25th PctlMedian75th Pctl90th PctlMax
Patient characteristics
 Age >65 years (%)30.235.339.651.356.864.465.5<0.0001
 Black (%)0.017.729.746.276.493.794.6<0.0001
 Male (%)39.245.647.153.056.872.473.80.07
 Charlson Comorbidity Index, median0.
 BMI, median24.328.429.531.133.336.536.90.09
 Median age (years)39.046.560.862.466.473.576.0<0.0001
Admission information (%)
 Hospital-to-hospital transfer0.<0.0001
 Admitted directly to ICU0.<0.0001
 Transferred from floor to ICU0.
 Admitted to a cohorted unit0.02.118.667.985.7196.397.1<0.0001
 Severe illness on presentation†
 Vasopressor use on day
 Mechanical ventilation on day
Treatment (%)
 Treated in a cohorted unit0.00.006.357.190.9100.0100.0<0.0001
 Treated in an ICU4.25.414.<0.0001
 COVID-19-specific treatment32.457.169.276.481.490.296.3<0.0001
 Concurrent antibiotic and COVID-19-specific treatment(s)24.342.959.469.876.784.396.3<0.0001
 Mechanical ventilation2.12.76.410.931.038.540.6<0.0001
 CPR before death0.00.08.314.333.340.066.70.0102
Outcomes (%)
 Days of mechanical ventilation, median‡
 Length of stay, median2.<0.0001
 ICU length of stay, median§
Discharge status (%)
 Transferred to another hospital0.
 Discharged home42.348.262.167.572.980.082.5<0.0001
  • *Differences across hospitals were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • †Defined as admission to ICU on day 1 of hospitalisation and treatment with both mechanical ventilation and vasopressors.

  • ‡For patients ever on mechanical ventilation.

  • §For patients ever in ICU.

  • ¶Variables marked with asterisks represent variation from the demographic cohort.

  • BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; VTE, venous thromboembolism; PE, pulmonary embolism