Table 3

Physical performance battery

Motoric abilityOutcomePurpose
 Back-scratch testDistance between middle fingers of hand (cm)Upper-body/shoulder flexibility
 Sitting forward-bend testReached distance on measuring
table (cm)
Lower-body flexibility
 Chair sit-and-reach testDistance between extended
middle fingers and tip of toes (cm)
Lower-body flexibility
Muscle strength
 Arm curl testNumber of biceps curls using dumbbellUpper-limb strength
 Hand grip testForce of grip (kg)Upper-limb strength
 Sit-to-stand testTime of 5 and 10 sit-to-stands (s)Lower-body strength
 One-leg heel raise testNumber of one-leg heel raisesLower-body strength
Gait and mobility
 4 m gait speed testTime (s) and speed (m/s) of 4 m
walking distance
Gait speed
 Timed up-and-go testTime of the test (s)Agility and dynamic balance
 SPPB feet together testTime (s), up to 10 sBalance
 SPPB semi-tandem testTime (s), up to 10 sBalance
 SPPB full tandem testTime (s), up to 10 sBalance
 Stork testTime of the test (s)Balance of lower limbs
 Stork test on balance padTime of the test (s)Balance of lower limbs
 6 min walk test6 min walk distance (m)Whole-body endurance
  • SPPB, short physical performance battery.