Table 4

Outcome measurements score changes and effect of the intervention at 8 weeks and 6 months

Outcome measureChanges at 8 weeksEffect size at 8 weeks, mean
(95% CI)*
Changes at 6 monthsEffect size at 6 months, mean
(95% CI)*
InterventionControlInterventionControl
PIH scale2.6 (13.2)−7.0 (12.3)8.3 (2.2 to 14.4)2.1 (10.6)−3.5 (16.6)4.4 (−2.8 to 11.6)
MSPSS−0.28 (1.4)†−0.25 (1.2)†0.0 (−0.80 to 0.80)‡−0.42 (0.93)†−0.06 (0.6)†−0.40 (−0.84 to 0.03)‡
WOMAC total§3.0 (19)†5.0 (22)†−2.6 (−10.2 to 4.9)‡2.1 (8.6)−0.59 (19.1)−0.65 (−8.9 to 7.6)
WOMAC pain§0.64 (2.6)0.63 (3.7)−0.75 (−2.5 to 1.0)0.91 (2.4)−0.09 (3.8)0.06 (−1.6 to 1.7)
WOMAC stiffness§−0.36 (1.5)−0.04 (1.1)−0.59 (−1.3 to 0.08)−0.27 (1.8)−0.29 (1.2)−0.31 (−1.1 to 0.46)
WOMAC function§1.1 (7.8)1.0 (10.4)−1.3 (−6.7 to 4.1)1.5 (7.8)−0.21 (15.4)−0.8 (−7.7 to 6.0)
ASES-80.48 (1.6)−0.04 (2.25)0.64 (−0.51 to 1.8)0.69 (3.0)†0.0 (3.3)†0.34 (−1.3 to 1.9)‡
HADS total§1.12 (3.8)1.38 (4.5)−0.27 (−2.8 to 2.3)1.33 (3.4)1.5 (4.3)−0.01 (−2.4 to 2.4)
HADS anxiety§0.95 (2.8)0.58 (2.1)0.26 (−1.2 to 1.7)0.59 (2.4)0.79 (2.6)−0.23 (−1.8 to 1.3)
HADS depression§0.20 (2.4)0.79 (3.4)−0.74 (−2.5 to 1.0)0.74 (1.6)0.67 (2.5)0.03 (−1.3 to 1.3)
EQ-5D-5L index¶−0.057 (0.20)0 (0.12)−0.06 (−0.18 to 0.06)−0.053 (0.14)0 (0.19)−0.04 (−0.12 to 0.04)
EQ-5D-5L VAS−2.5 (20)†0 (10)†0 (−10.8 to 10.8)‡0 (20)†−5 (21)†6.7 (−4.6 to 18.0)‡
  • *Analysis of covariance models adjusted for baseline outcomes.

  • †Median (IQR).

  • ‡Median (95% CIs).

  • §Higher scores indicate more severe problems.

  • ¶EQ-5D-5L index value control group n=23 due to missing data.

  • ASES-8, 8-item Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale English version; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; MSPSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; PIH scale, revised 12-item Partners in Health Scale; WOMAC, Likert version of the Western Ontario and McMaster’s University Osteoarthritis Index.