Table 2

Prevalence % of mental difficulties by sociodemographic and parental characteristics

% (N)SDQ score≥18 %OR95% CI
Sex
 Male51.6 (550)12.11Ref
 Female48.4 (560)15.01.28(0.88 to 1.86)
Age (years)
 111.1 (14)35.3*3.79*(1.11 to 12.93)
 129.7 (111)18.41.57(0.86 to 2.86)
 1338.9 (432)12.91.03(0.68 to 1.55)
 1450.4 (553)12.61Ref
Ethnic group
 White British86.1 (839)14.11Ref
 Other ethnic group13.9 (271)9.60.65(0.37 to 1.11)
Parental highest social class (NS-SEC)
 Management and professional41.8 (439)9.01Ref
 Intermediate22.7 (253)14.01.64(0.99 to 2.74)
 Routine and manual31.0 (345)17.3**2.11**(1.34 to 3.33)
 Unemployed4.4 (53)26.9**3.71**(1.56 to 8.84)
Mother’s highest qualification
 Degree or higher33.2 (351)11.11Ref
 A-level or equivalent17.5 (185)11.11.00(0.55 to 1.84)
 GCSE or equivalent29.5 (309)13.31.23(0.75 to 2.01)
 None/other19.8 (239)20.0**2.00**(1.20 to 3.33)
Household poverty score
 Not at all deprived20.9 (179)8.01Ref
 Somewhat deprived54.0 (493)11.61.50(0.78 to 2.88)
 Highly deprived25.1 (266)22.1***3.26***(1.67 to 6.36)
Family composition
 Two-parent69.7 (759)12.01Ref
 Single parent27.8 (321)18.5*1.66*(1.12 to 2.47)
 Other2.5 (30)Suppressed
Happy with school work
 Happy74.7 (840)9.01Ref
 Not happy25.3 (263)26.8***3.71***(2.52 to 5.47)
Happy with school
 Happy78.6 (876)9.31Ref
 Not happy21.4 (220)28.9***3.96***(2.66 to 5.90)
Parental interest in school
 Always or nearly always79.0 (871)10.61Ref
 Sometimes or rarely21.0 (220)24.4***2.73***(1.8 to 4.10)
Regularly attends parents’ evenings
 Always or nearly always81.1 (896)10.81Ref
 Sometimes or rarely18.9 (199)24.9***2.73***(1.79 to 4.16)
Feels supported by family
 Always or mostly76.3 (837)9.01Ref
 Not supported23.7 (269)27.8***3.87***(2.62 to 5.71)
Regularly quarrels with either parent
 Less than once a week60.0 (662)7.51Ref
 More than once a week40.0 (423)22.5***3.59***(2.40 to 5.36)
Parental mental health
 Not poor56.8 (539)11.31Ref
 Poor43.2 (423)16.4*1.55*(1.02 to 2.36)
Parental physical health
 Not poor58.6 (564)11.31Ref
 Poor41.4 (402)16.6*1.57*(1.04 to 2.37)
Attainment at key stage 2 Maths
 Achieved level 471.5 (860)12.51Ref
 Did not achieve level 417.4 (169)18.21.56(0.98 to 2.48)
Attainment at key stage 2 Writing
 Achieved level 482.6 (270)11.51Ref
 Did not achieve level 428.4 (759)18.4**1.72**(1.15 to 2.58)
Attainment at key stage 2 Reading
 Achieved level 492.3 (947)13.41Ref
 Did not achieve level 47.7 (74)15.11.15(0.56 to 2.37)
  • Ref=reference group; unweighted N; imputed and weighted percentages shown; some values are suppressed due to small base sizes and risk of disclosure; ***p<0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

  • NS-SEC, National Statistics Socioeconomic Classification; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire.