Table 3

Multilevel logistic regression results on the joint effect of urbanicity and type of household cooking fuel on childhood anaemia

VariablesModel 0Model IModel IIModel IIIModel IV
aOR95% CIaOR95% CIaOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Fixed effects
Urbanicity-type of cooking fuel
 Clean-urban1111
 Unclean-urban1.350***1.286 to 1.4181.229***1.145 to 1.3201.206***1.122 to 1.2971.0630.987 to 1.146
 Unclean-rural1.673***1.600 to 1.7501.211***1.129 to 1.2991.115**1.032 to 1.2051.120**1.033 to 1.214
 Clean-rural1.273***1.144 to 1.4161.317***1.136 to 1.5261.239**1.067 to 1.4381.256**1.080 to 1.460
Child age
 01
 10.803***0.762 to 0.8470.804***0.762 to 0.8470.799***0.758 to 0.844
 20.498***0.471 to 0.3620.500***0.473 to 0.5280.493***0.466 to 0.521
 30.341***0.321 to 0.3620.345***0.325 to 0.3670.342***0.322 to 0.364
 40.261***0.244 to 0.2790.265***0.247 to 0.2840.264***0.247 to 0.283
Sex of child
 Male111
 Female0.862***0.834 to 0.8910.861***0.833 to 0.8900.857***0.829 to 0.887
Birth order
 1111
 21.152***1.092 to 1.2161.124***1.065 to 1.1861.121***1.061 to 1.184
 3 and above1.397***1.302 to 1.4981.258***1.170 to 1.3531.269***1.179 to 1.367
Perceived birth size
 Larger than average111
 Average1.0040.968 to 1.0411.0150.978 to 1.0531.052**1.014 to 1.093
 smaller than average1.0260.975 to 1.081.0260.975 to 1.0801.075**1.020 to 1.132
 Don't know1.184*1.009 to 1.391.178*1.003 to 1.3841.1290.960 to 1.328
Age of mother
 15–19111
 20–240.802***0.735 to 0.8750.834***0.763 to 0.9100.869***0.795 to 0.950
 25–290.658***0.600 to 0.7220.689***0.628 to 0.7560.733***0.667 to 0.806
 30–340.586***0.532 to 0.6470.608***0.550 to 0.6710.667***0.603 to 0.737
 35–390.538***0.484 to 0.5970.543***0.488 to 0.6040.602***0.540 to 0.671
 40–440.526***0.469 to 0.590.526***0.468 to 0.5920.599***0.532 to 0.675
 45–490.497***0.433 to 0.5720.493***0.428 to 0.5680.559***0.484 to 0.645
BMI of mother
 Thin111
 Normal0.9550.901 to 1.0120.970***0.915 to 1.0280.923**0.870 to 0.979
 Obese0.816***0.765 to 0.8710.841***0.787 to 0.8980.780***0.730 to 0.834
Education
 No formal111
 Primary0.531***0.509 to 0.5540.568030.545 to 0.5920.779***0.745 to 0.815
 Secondary0.502***0.479 to 0.5270.540160.514 to 0.5670.676***0.642 to 0.713
 Tertiary0.392***0.354 to 0.4350.436710.393 to 0.4850.534***0.480 to 0.595
Marital status
 Never married1
 Married1.0710.996 to 1.1521.161***1.074 to 1.2551.0300.951 to 1.116
 Living with a partner0.9750.900 to 1.0571.0440.958 to 1.1371.0360.949 to 1.131
 Widowed/divorced/separated0.9790.893 to 1.0721.0620.968 to 1.1651.102*1.003 to 1.211
Employment status
 No1
 Yes0.9680.934 to 1.0040.9820.947 to 1.0180.911***0.878 to 0.946
Antenatal care
 No1
 Yes0.912**0.857 to 0.9690.940*0.884 to 1.0000.931*0.874 to 0.991
Wealth
 Poor1
 Middle0.928**0.885 to 0.9730.917***0.874 to 0.962
 Rich0.830***0.790 to 0.8730.888***0.844 to 0.935
Household size
 Small11
 Medium1.109***1.066 to 1.1561.095***1.051 to 1.142
 Large1.472***1.383 to 1.5661.240***1.163 to 1.321
Age of household head
 Young-aged adults1
 Middle-aged adults1.087***1.041 to 1.1361.0120.968 to 1.058
 Old-aged adults1.088**1.026 to 1.1530.9660.910 to 1.025
Sex of household head
 Male1
 Female0.945**0.903 to 0.9890.9660.923 to 1.011
Access to electricity
 No1
 Yes1.090***1.039 to 1.1430.896***0.853 to 0.941
Type of toilet facility
 Unimproved1
 Improved0.856***0.824 to 0.8890.927***0.892 to 0.963
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved1
 Improved1.046**1.008 to 1.0851.046**1.008 to 1.086
Geographic region
 Western Africa1
 Eastern Africa0.397***0.380 to 0.415
 Central Africa0.562***0.532 to 0.595
 Southern Africa0.497***0.451 to 0.548
Random effects
 PSU variance (95% CI)0.02 (0.02 to 0.03)0.01 (0.02 to 0.03)0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)
 ICC0.0070.0070.0060.0050.005
 LR test157.11***162.27***33.77***32.09***31.14***
 Wild χ2Reference638.08***5397.49***5699.37***7017.31***
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood−79 952−79 633.85−41 560.3−41 341.3−40 448.4
 AIC2E+0515 9277.783 182.5382 764.680 984.8
 Number of clusters13821382138213821382
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • 1, Ref; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion; AOR, adjusted OR; ICC, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient; LR, Likelihood ratio; PSU, primary sampling units.