Table 1

PICO characteristics of the included systematic reviews and trials.

Systematic review (SR)ParticipantsInterventions*, †, ‡ComparatorOutcome
Penicillins20Individuals of all agesAny penicillin class antibioticPlacebo†Any reported drug-related adverse event, death, resistant bacteria§
Cephalosporins22Any cephalosporin class antibiotics
Macrolides21Any macrolide class antibiotics
  • *Interventions delivered by any route, including oral, topical, intravenous and intramuscular.

  • †The use of concomitant medications was permitted if it was given for both arms.

  • ‡Macrolides SR included trials with more than two intervention arms as long as one arm was a macrolide arm and one was a placebo arm.

  • §Same antibiotic-resistant bacteria for each review.

  • PICO, Participant, Intervention, Comparator and Outcome.